File Name: shadows and wind a view of modern vietnam .zip
With an estimated Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. Archaeological excavations indicate that Vietnam was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic age. The ancient Vietnamese nation, which was centered on the Red River valley and nearby coastal areas, was annexed by the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC, which subsequently made Vietnam a division of Imperial China for over a millennium. The first independent monarchy emerged in the 10th century AD.
With an estimated Vietnam shares its land borders with China to the north, and Laos and Cambodia to the west. Archaeological excavations indicate that Vietnam was inhabited as early as the Paleolithic age. The ancient Vietnamese nation, which was centered on the Red River valley and nearby coastal areas, was annexed by the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC, which subsequently made Vietnam a division of Imperial China for over a millennium.
The first independent monarchy emerged in the 10th century AD. This paved the way for successive imperial dynasties as the nation expanded southward until the Indochina Peninsula was colonised by the French in the late 19th century. Modern Vietnam was born upon the Proclamation of Independence from France in Following Vietnamese victory against the French in the First Indochina War , which ended in , the nation was divided into two rival states: communist North and anti-communist South.
Conflicts intensified in the Vietnam War , which saw extensive US intervention in support of South Vietnam and Soviet and Chinese support for the North, and ended with North Vietnamese victory in After North and South Vietnam were reunified as a communist state under a unitary socialist government in , the country became economically and politically isolated until , when the Communist Party initiated a series of economic and political reforms that facilitated Vietnamese integration into world politics and the global economy.
As a result of the successful reforms, Vietnam has enjoyed a high GDP growth rate, consistently ranked among the fastest-growing countries in the world. It nevertheless faces challenges including corruption , pollution , poverty , inadequate social welfare and a poor human rights record , including increasing persecution of religious groups and human rights advocates and intensifying restrictions on civil liberties.
The Emperor refused since the name was related to Zhao Tuo 's Nanyue, which included the regions of Guangxi and Guangdong in southern China. Archaeological excavations have revealed the existence of humans in what is now Vietnam as early as the Paleolithic age. From the 16th century onward, civil strife and frequent political infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. They also had less interest in the territory than they did in China and Japan.
Between and , French traders also engaged in trade in Vietnam. From its foundation, the Paris Foreign Missions Society under Propaganda Fide actively sent missionaries to Vietnam, entering Cochinchina first in and Tonkin first in The Vietnamese authorities began [ when?
Between and , the southern third of the country became the French colony of Cochinchina. The three Vietnamese entities were formally integrated into the union of French Indochina in The mutiny caused an irreparable split in the independence movement that resulted in many leading members of the organisation becoming communist converts.
Afterwards, the Japanese Empire was allowed to station its troops in Vietnam while permitting the pro- Vichy French colonial administration to continue. This led to the Vietnamese Famine of , which resulted in up to two million deaths. In July , the Allies had decided to divide Indochina at the 16th parallel to allow Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China to receive the Japanese surrender in the north while Britain's Lord Louis Mountbatten received their surrender in the south.
The Allies agreed that Indochina still belonged to France. But as the French were weakened by the German occupation , British-Indian forces and the remaining Japanese Southern Expeditionary Army Group were used to maintain order and to help France reestablish control through the — War in Vietnam.
The colonial administration was thereby ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of into three countries—Vietnam, and the kingdoms of Cambodia and Laos. Vietnam was further divided into North and South administrative regions at the Demilitarised Zone , roughly along the 17th parallel north , pending elections scheduled for July This migration was in large part aided by the United States military through Operation Passage to Freedom.
Between and , the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including " rent reduction " and " land reform ", which resulted in significant political repression. To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States began increasing its contribution of military advisers, using the Gulf of Tonkin incident as a pretext for such intervention. Meanwhile, China and the Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with significant material aid and 15, combat advisers.
The campaign failed militarily, but shocked the American establishment and turned US public opinion against the war. This also entailed an unsuccessful effort to strengthen and stabilise South Vietnam.
China later launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam in , causing Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid, while mistrust of the Chinese government began to escalate. Once an inlet of the Gulf of Tonkin , it has been filled in over the millennia by riverine alluvial deposits. It is criss-crossed by a maze of rivers and canals, which carry so much sediment that the delta advances 60 to 80 metres Southern Vietnam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range , and extensive forests.
Due to differences in latitude and the marked variety in topographical relief , Vietnam's climate tends to vary considerably for each region. As the country is located within the Indomalayan realm , Vietnam is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a uniquely high level of biodiversity.
This was noted in the country's National Environmental Condition Report in Vietnam's fauna includes: nematode species, oligochaeta , acarina , springtails , 7, insects, reptiles, and amphibians.
Vietnam is also home to 1, species of freshwater microalgae , constituting 9. However, the last individual of the species in Vietnam was reportedly shot in In Vietnam, wildlife poaching has become a major concern.
In , a non-governmental organisation NGO called Education for Nature — Vietnam was founded to instill in the population the importance of wildlife conservation in the country. Through collaboration between the NGOs and local authorities, many local poaching syndicates were crippled by their leaders' arrests.
The main environmental concern that persists in Vietnam today is the legacy of the use of the chemical herbicide Agent Orange , which continues to cause birth defects and many health problems in the Vietnamese population. In the southern and central areas affected most by the chemical's use during the Vietnam War, nearly 4. Plant construction costs were funded by the company itself.
The Vietnamese government began doing this at the end of the war. Apart from herbicide problems, arsenic in the ground water in the Mekong and Red River Deltas has also become a major concern. Vietnam is a unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic , one of the two communist states the other being Laos in Southeast Asia. The general secretary of the CPV performs numerous key administrative functions, controlling the party's national organisation. Only political organisations affiliated with or endorsed by the CPV are permitted to contest elections in Vietnam.
These include the Vietnamese Fatherland Front and worker and trade unionist parties. The National Assembly of Vietnam is the unicameral state legislature composed of members.
Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and many local courts. Military courts possess special jurisdiction in matters of national security. Vietnam maintains the death penalty for numerous offences.
Throughout its history, Vietnam's main foreign relationship has been with various Chinese dynasties. Though China and Vietnam are now formally at peace,  significant territorial tensions remain between the two countries over the South China Sea. It also maintains relations with over non-governmental organisations. Full diplomatic relations were also restored with New Zealand , which opened its embassy in Hanoi in ;  Vietnam established an embassy in Wellington in The VPA has an active manpower of around ,, but its total strength, including paramilitary forces, may be as high as 5,, Under the current constitution, the CPV is the only party allowed to rule, the operation of all other political parties being outlawed.
Other human rights issues concern freedom of association , freedom of speech , and freedom of the press. Vietnam is predominantly a source country for trafficked persons who are exploited for labour. Gia Lai Kon Tum An Giang Long An Throughout the history of Vietnam, its economy has been based largely on agriculture —primarily wet rice cultivation.
Under strict state control, Vietnam's economy continued to be plagued by inefficiency, corruption in state-owned enterprises , poor quality and underproduction. Private ownership began to be encouraged in industry, commerce and agriculture and state enterprises were restructured to operate under market constraints. As a result of several land reform measures, Vietnam has become a major exporter of agricultural products.
It is now the world's largest producer of cashew nuts, with a one-third global share;  the largest producer of black pepper , accounting for one-third of the world's market;  and the second-largest rice exporter in the world after Thailand since the s.
In , Vietnam's total state spending on science and technology amounted to roughly 0. In modern times, Vietnamese scientists have made many significant contributions in various fields of study, most notably in mathematics. The autonomy which Vietnamese research centres have enjoyed since the mids has enabled many of them to operate as quasi-private organisations, providing services such as consulting and technology development.
Many of these research centres serve as valuable intermediaries bridging public research institutions, universities, and firms. Tourism is an important element of economic activity in the country, contributing 7. Vietnam welcomed over The vast majority of visitors in , 9. Russia , and the United Kingdom , , followed closely by France , and Germany , were the largest source of international arrivals from Europe.
Other significant international arrivals by nationality include the United States , and Australia , All three are ranked in the top most visited cities in the world. Much of Vietnam's modern transportation network can trace its roots to the French colonial era when it was used to facilitate the transportation of raw materials to its main ports.
It was extensively expanded and modernised following the partition of Vietnam. Bicycles , motorcycles and motor scooters remain the most popular forms of road transport in the country, a legacy of the French, though the number of privately owned cars has been increasing in recent years.
Road accidents remain the major safety issue of Vietnamese transportation with an average of 30 people losing their lives daily. In , Vietnam and Japan signed a deal to build a high-speed railway — shinkansen bullet train —using Japanese technology. Tan Son Nhat is the nation's largest airport handling the majority of international passenger traffic.
As of , EVN made up about Most of Vietnam's power is generated by either hydropower or fossil fuel power such as coal , oil and gas , while diesel , small hydropower and renewable energy supplies the remainder. The plan was abandoned in late when a majority of the National Assembly voted to oppose the project due to widespread public concern over radioactive contamination.
According to statistics from British Petroleum BP , Vietnam is listed among the 52 countries that have proven crude oil reserves. In the reserve was approximately 4.
Templer's Shadow and Wind is a bit dated, but fascinating view of Vietnam up to PDF Shadows And Wind A View Of Modern Vietnam A rain shadow is a patch.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. In Shadows and Wind, Robert Templer paints a fascinating and fresh picture of a country usually viewed with hazy nostalgia or deep suspicion. Here is Hanoi, an increasingly tense and troubled city approaching its millennium but uncertain of its direction. Here are people emerging from a long wilderness of malnutrition, discovering a new lifestyle of leisure and luxury. Save to Library. Create Alert.
There was a problem with your download, please contact the server administrator. Edited by Neil Caplan and Yaakov Sharett. My Struggle for Peace is a remarkable political document offering insights into the complex workings of the young Israeli political system, set against the backdrop of the disintegration of the country's fragile armistice with the Arab states. Replete with the diarist's candid comments on Israel's first generation leaders and world statesmen of the day, the diary also tells the dramatic human story of a political career cut short—the removal of an unusually sensitive, dedicated, and talented public servant. The diary challenges the popular narrative that Israel's confrontation with its neighbors was unavoidable by offering daily evidence of Sharett's statesmanship, moderation, diplomacy, and concern for Israel's place in international affairs. This long-awaited 3-volume English abridgement of Sharett's Yoman Ishi [Personal diary] Ma'ariv, maintains the integrity, flavor, and impact of the 8-volume Hebrew original and includes additional documentary material that was not accessible at the time. Yaakov Sharett is a retired diplomat, journalist, editor, and translator in Tel Aviv.
It is a rain shadow wind that results from the subsequent adiabatic warming of air that has dropped most of its moisture on windward slopes see orographic lift. As a consequence of the different adiabatic lapse rates of moist and dry air, the air on the leeward slopes becomes warmer than equivalent elevations on the windward slopes. There are four known causes of the foehn warming and drying effect. When winds blow over elevated terrain, air forced upwards expands and cools due to the decrease in pressure with height. Since colder air can hold less water vapour, moisture condenses to form clouds and precipitates as rain or snow on the mountain's upwind slopes. The change of state from vapour to liquid water releases latent heat energy which heats the air, partially countering the cooling that occurs as the air rises. The subsequent removal of moisture as precipitation renders this heat gain by the air irreversible, leading to the warm, dry, foehn conditions as the air descends in the mountain's lee.
Search this site. Albert Mohler Jr. Elizabeth Watson. Department of the Army. Updated Edition BY : Taschen.
From these historical examples, the authors argue that in the politics of Vietnamese traditional Confucianism, there has been the presence of democratic elements. Yet, they do not reflect a full-fledged democracy and should be seen only as signs of village democracy. Here, the authors suggest that civil society will play an important role in making this transition smoother. Debates on democracy within Confucianism, which often fall into the realm of Chinese studies, arose in the 20th century when the democratic system became more prevalent around the world. Given that Confucianism and democracy are elements of different cultures Lee , scholars have spent enormous efforts to analyze the nature of their relationship, whether that be the compatibility of Confucianism with Western democracy Hu , the interaction between Confucianism and democratic development in East.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. In Shadows and Wind , Robert Templer paints a fascinating and fresh picture of a country usually viewed with hazy nostalgia or deep suspicion. Here is Hanoi, an increasingly tense and troubled city approaching its millennium but uncertain of its direction.
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