File Name: qualities use and examples of sustainable building materials .zip
Homeowners, contractors and businesses are switching to alternative building materials to limit environmental impact. Investing in sustainable construction creates an energy-efficient building, reduced carbon dioxide emissions all while boosting public perception as an environmentally responsible company. Also known as sustainable or high-performance building, green building is an environmentally responsible construction method.
Wood is a fundamental part of construction. It is a versatile construction material because it can be found everywhere. Early settlers in North America used wood to build log cabins since it was more efficient than transporting other materials all the way from Europe.
Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. To identify avenues for improving the marketing of wood products, it has become critical to understand what architects, the foremost specifiers of building materials, look for in the green materials they select.
This research examines the factors that influence architects in their choice of materials for green building design, to determine if current practice in green architecture is changing designer preferences for building materials and product attributes.
The project also aims to establish the degree to which architects consider wood as a suitable material for green building construction. In , a web-based questionnaire was designed to obtain firsthand feedback from a random sample of North-American architects.
Respondents were asked to compare green building design to conventional building design, with respect to material selection criteria and priorities. Results showed that material selection remains largely attribute-based, as indicated by the strong influence of LEED, and the low use of decisional software to assist in the evaluation of product environmental performance.
Wood products were prized for their renewability, and viewed as having the potential to reduce the environmental footprint of green buildings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of architects indicated that following LEED certification guidelines did not hinder the use of wood products for, and in at least a third of cases, architects actually specified more wood products for non-structural components, finishings and furnishings.
Though embodied energy and carbon were not currently perceived as the most useful environmental product information items, architects predicted that future material selection criteria would include improved and comparable product performance data, with priority conceded to low energy, low carbon, and health-safe materials.
An Ethics Certificate of Approval was issued for this project, registered as H Torrefied Wood - wood that has been treated at a high temperature without chemicals, giving the wood new features such as a more decay-resistant surface, a lower risk of mould, and a resistance to bending and cleaving Turnover - when an employee leaves a company and the company replaces the employee Visible Wood Products - include visible wood structure, as well as appearance products such as interior paneling, flooring, etc.
The actual research was preceded by a semester of coursework on Sustainable Design Principals and Practice, taken at the University of Sydney, in Australia. Following this architectural leveling, the core of the project was conducted from the Marketing Department of the Eastern laboratories of FPInnovations formerly Forintek Canada Corp.
Though the bulk of the data collection, processing and analysis took place in and early , the thesis write-up spanned a lengthier period. As a due to its collaborators, this thesis has finally come together and found its way back to its origins in Vancouver. My first word of thanks thus goes to my supervisor, Dr. Rob Kozak, whose remarkable willingness and openness gave me the latitude to pursue my graduate project despite geographical constraints.
Proactive and supportive, Rob endorsed each initiative and opportunity I presented him with. Of the many qualities that make him an outstanding supervisor, his availability above all things should not go unmarked.
The speed with which Rob has returned emails, phone calls, addressed urgent documents as well as less pressing ones, truly testifies of his dedication to students. This green buildings and materials project would not have made sense without the guidance of a forefront thinker and emeritus writer on sustainable architecture, Professor Ray Cole, Distinguished University Scholar at UBC. His recommendations and comments were immensely effective and received with much appreciation.
I express immense gratitude for the patience granted by all members of my directing committee. Additionally, I must acknowledge Gayle Kosh, Manager of Graduate Programs, for the extent of her assistance and her diligence in making certain I was up to par with administrative xiii requirements. Many thanks to her for having followed me through all destinations, keeping me connected to the Faculty of Forestry in Vancouver, despite the distance. Finally, as graduate funding is vital, I lastly but not leastly thank, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British- Columbia, and FPInnovations for their contribution in making this project possible.
In , more than ten years after the scientific community said it was sceptical of anthropogenic global warming1, a unanimous agreement2 on the seriousness of greenhouse gas emissions Easterbrook, created a true sense of urgency for global remediation.
Identification of the largest emitting sectors has prompted major emitters, such as the construction industry, to seriously reconsider their energy and materials consumption. In an attempt to simultaneously tackle climate change, rising energy prices, and resource scarcity, the construction industry has turned to green building, a design strategy advocating both material and energy efficiency. Widespread promotion and growth of green architecture, as a consequence of increased government and business accountability for international commitments and policy implementation regarding sustainable development, have been strongly upheld by rising public awareness for related issues such as controlled resource extraction and traceability, corporate social responsibility, and healthy work environments.
Although sustainable building enlaces a broad range of environmental, economic, and social considerations, a nuanced market designation known as green building, has primarily dealt with environmental issues, focusing largely on energy efficiency. With declining fossil fuel stocks and increasing carbon dioxide emissions driving the trade market, it is no surprise that the energy consumption of buildings has received significant attention.
In addition to the energy and emissions associated with the manufacture and transportation of materials, the environmental profiles of buildings are burdened by the contamination of both ecological and human health systems, due to the release of toxic by- products from industrial processes necessary to the manufacturing of building materials Trusty 1 The National Academy of Sciences declared in , "There is no evidence yet" of climate change.
Green building principles, thus, encourage the use of low-impact materials that contribute to reducing the footprint of buildings on ecosystems and human environments. The means by which materials qualify as green have been at the forefront of debate over which building products are preferable. Guided by various references such as available product information, and building assessment systems that stipulate desirable attributes, material specifiers, mainly architects and engineers, are faced with the final task of judging the true environmental value of green-marketed materials.
The caveat is that a great deal of complexity surrounds the conditions in which select materials become environmentally advisable. For example, the use of raw materials may, counter-intuitively, be better than their recycled equivalents or vice versa , depending on many factors such as locality of extraction, and energy mix used for processing and manufacturing, as well as transportation type and distance, to name a few. Nowhere is this more evident than in the case for wood products; although wood is recognized as a sustainable building material by the scientific community Buchanan and Levine, ; Gustavsson et al.
As leading environmental building rating systems evolve from single-attribute assessment towards the endorsement of multi-attribute methods for evaluating the ecological impacts and lifecycle outcomes of building designs and components4, architects may be called upon to modify the means by which they select materials for green design. The foremost purpose of this literature review was to explore the variety of issues related to green building design more specifically a subset of sustainable building , and to identify prominent topics that influence material selection for green building design.
The evolution of contemporary environmental building rating systems and the assessment of material specification for green building design were investigated. The use of wood as a green building material was also examined. Although scientific primary literature was examined, other published media such as privately commissioned reports, technical reports, conference proceedings, working papers, trade literature, and other grey literature were also reviewed in an attempt to provide recent, market related information.
The terms green architecture, environmental architecture, and ecological building are all synonymous terms, referencing building design with reduced environmental impacts.
Building research leaders, more definitively since the early 90s, have been conditioning the building industry to adopt green design, a set of building principles which largely dictates the aspects of design which have been prioritized to minimize building impacts on natural systems and human health. To date, leading building environmental assessment systems have essentially dealt with energy- efficiency, economy of water and materials, waste reduction, and improved air quality for occupants.
Despite the triple-bottom line definition of sustainability, as defined by the 4Brundtland Commission5, which includes socio-economic welfare, it appears that the environmental aspects of sustainability have taken precedence over the equally necessary considerations of economic and societal values. Green as an adjective for building design has come to emphasize improved environmental building performance, with focus on areas such as energy efficiency.
For this reason, the term green building is employed throughout the report, in lieu of sustainable building. The latter considers a much wider array of environmental, social and economic determinants that extend beyond the simple reduction of environmental impacts. A recent review Leslie, dates the first building energy measurement tool, Energy Systems Analysis, back to when it was introduced by Public Works Canada. This effort, and those that followed, such as the Building Energy Systems Analysis software presentations, were no doubt initiated as a response to the energy crisis and oil ban.
Version 1 of this system, intended for office buildings, was launched in , and during its course, 18 buildings were assessed under its label. During the same period, parallel evolution of building assessment models took place in other countries, notably in the United Kingdom and in the United States. In 5 Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Faced with a growing number of green building programs and initiatives, a World Green Building Council was created in to provide an international forum for green building development, and to facilitate contact between industry leaders and emerging green markets.
Green Building Councils are member-based organizations that collaborate with public and private partners to develop green buildings and communities. In Canada, a similar, yet more subdued trend has surfaced. Membership to the Canada Green Building Council CaGBC evolved from members at the beginning of , to 1, members in , to over 2, members by The number of professionals holding LEED credentials in had risen to 5, Registration and certification rates increased tenfold from to , soaring from 51 registered projects in , to nearly in CaGBC, The biggest subscribers to green building rating systems have been governments and institutions.
However, a recent upsurge in commercial interest for certified buildings has meant a significant increase in the number of commercial registrations from 55 to in to in CaGBC, The issues governing the green building archetype and its evolution are discussed in this section.
Numerous international and national initiatives, both in the public and private sectors, have inspired countries to develop their own sets of rating systems.
Differences in standards, objectives, priorities, and social contexts have resulted in a multiplicity of systems and tools, based on a variety of frameworks ranging from best practice design recommendations e. EcoEffect, Sweden.
The extent and span of available tools has created a general confusion about their role. Assessment tools and rating systems are not standards, nor are they design guides; yet, they are commonly used as such. Evidence of design teams confusing means with ends has meant that rating tools, developed as evaluation instruments, are inadvertently being used for unintended purposes. The State of Minnesota has bypassed this confusion by simply avoiding ratings. Despite the diversity and proprietary subtleties characteristic to each of the existing assessment models, most can be grouped according to the strategies they advocate.
Four distinct approaches are identifiable, including: 1 measurement of performance actual versus potential performance , 2 nature of the assessment objective versus subjective , 3 conditions of application voluntary or mandatory , and 4 assessment requirements self-assessment or independent third-party assessment Hes, Oppositely, LEED chose to introduce their system with rigorous conditions, thus limiting rapid and general adoption.
The following section describes, in essence, the distinguishing features of current assessment programs and labelling systems. Performance - The first difference that exists between rating systems is measurement of performance. Some tools measure predicted performance design potential , while others measure actual performance operational outcomes. Morison et al. Many other changes can occur between the conception and construction of a building, and a disparity may exist between the projected performance and the actual performance.
Occupant behaviour and performance delivery of building systems also contribute greatly to the overall performance of a building, and thus to the width of the credibility gap. Thus, building performance, from the perspective of reducing environmental burdens, can only be asserted if operational achievements are measured after occupation.
Certification is awarded after the audit of design and construction documentation; Green Globes provides a post construction building walkthrough. The lack of assessment for performance of building operations is a common flaw to all early rating systems. Conditioning design teams to consider green design from the onset was a way of recognizing the importance of integrating sustainability objectives early in the conception process.
In addition to acknowledging design, many rating systems have now recognized the importance of evaluating operational performance, and are adjusting their certification delivery requirements.
Most rating systems are subjective, promoting the attainment of targets that are either intuitively or arbitrarily set. This value-based approach is used by many point-based tools because of its simplicity, yet it has been criticized for being unsystematic and lacking scientific support.
Establishment of priorities is another debated topic as credit weightings have not typically been used to establish the value of categories and requirements; for example, is water efficiency more important than indoor air quality? Usually, all requirements within a category are given the same value. Some would argue that renewable energy generation should be worth more than one point since energy savings are of first-class importance, while others would argue that the bicycle credit should be worth more, as transportation emissions are most contributory to climate change.
In order to settle these debates, influenced by differences in societal, economical and political positions, some certification schemes have attempted to more objectively evaluate the weightings of such issues. The LEED rating guide has revised its credit weightings according to 13 environmental impact categories, and established that energy efficiency and CO2 reductions will be more heavily weighted than other elements.
In March , an ANSI committee conducted an Analytical Hierarchy Process AHP , using specialized software, to rank the seven assessment categories in Green Globes, in order of relative importance, so that the overall number of points 1, could be distributed accordingly between categories Trusty, Condition of Application - Assessment tools are either mandatory or voluntary.
Homeowners, contractors and businesses are switching to alternative building materials to limit environmental impact. Investing in sustainable construction creates an energy-efficient building, reduced carbon dioxide emissions all while boosting public perception as an environmentally responsible company. Also known as sustainable or high-performance building, green building is an environmentally responsible construction method. Green buildings are designed to reduce waste and use natural resources more efficiently. Bamboo flooring is a popular alternative to traditional hardwood. Available in a variety of styles and colors, bamboo is a fast-growing grass that can provide a touch of sustainable personality to any space. Building with reclaimed wood is the most environmentally responsible way to reduce the amount of lumber in landfills and save trees.
Green building also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the U. Green Building Council.
Reviewed: October 10th Published: December 4th Timber Buildings and Sustainability.
Green buildings preserve precious natural resources and improve our quality of life. However, it is worth noting that not all green buildings are — and need to be - the same. Different countries and regions have a variety of characteristics such as distinctive climatic conditions, unique cultures and traditions, diverse building types and ages, or wide-ranging environmental, economic and social priorities — all of which shape their approach to green building. This is why WorldGBC supports its member Green Building Councils and their member companies in individual countries and across regions, to pursue green buildings that are best suited to their own markets. Skip to main content. About Green Building.
Sustainable architecture is architecture that seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, development space and the ecosystem at large. Sustainable architecture uses a conscious approach to energy and ecological conservation in the design of the built environment. The idea of sustainability, or ecological design , is to ensure that our use of presently available resources does not end up having detrimental effects to our collective well-being or making it impossible to obtain resources for other applications in the long run. Energy efficiency over the entire life cycle of a building is the most important goal of sustainable architecture. Architects use many different passive and active techniques to reduce the energy needs of buildings and increase their ability to capture or generate their own energy. Numerous passive architectural strategies have been developed over time. Examples of such strategies include the arrangement of rooms or the sizing and orientation of windows in a building,  and the orientation of facades and streets or the ratio between building heights and street widths for urban planning.
Его карточка должна лежать где-то сверху. Беккер еще больше усилил акцент, но так, чтобы собеседница могла понять, что ему нужно, и говорил слегка сбивчиво, подчеркивая свою крайнюю озабоченность. Люди часто нарушают правила, когда сталкиваются с подобной настойчивостью. Но вместо того чтобы нарушить правила, женщина выругала самоуверенного североамериканца и отсоединилась. Расстроенный, Беккер повесил трубку. Провал.
В голове у нее стучало.
Халохот, спустившись вниз по улочке, смачно выругался. Сначала от Беккера его отделяла лишь одна супружеская пара, и он надеялся, что они куда-нибудь свернут. Но колокольный звон растекался по улочке, призывая людей выйти из своих домов. Появилась вторая пара, с детьми, и шумно приветствовала соседей.
Ему была видна задняя дверца: как это принято в Севилье, она оставалась открытой - экономичный способ кондиционирования. Все внимание Беккера сосредоточилось на открытой двери, и он забыл о жгучей боли в ногах. Задние колеса уже остались за спиной - огромные, доходящие ему до плеч скаты, вращающиеся все быстрее и быстрее.
Очередь из десяти человек, толкотня и крик. Испания не славится эффективностью бюрократического аппарата, и Беккер понял, что ему придется простоять здесь всю ночь, чтобы получить информацию о канадце.
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