File Name: roy pascal design and truth in autobiography .zip
Published by Garland Pub. Written in English. Map out your whole life.
The word "autobiography" was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in in the English periodical The Monthly Review , when he suggested the word as a hybrid, but condemned it as "pedantic". However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in Roy Pascal differentiates autobiography from the periodic self-reflective mode of journal or diary writing by noting that "[autobiography] is a review of a life from a particular moment in time, while the diary, however reflective it may be, moves through a series of moments in time".
While biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. The memoir form is closely associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self and more on others during the autobiographer's review of their own life. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective.
The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information. Some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history. Spiritual autobiography is an account of an author's struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion, often interrupted by moments of regression. The author re-frames their life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine.
The earliest example of a spiritual autobiography is Augustine's Confessions though the tradition has expanded to include other religious traditions in works such as Zahid Rohari 's An Autobiography and Black Elk Speaks. The spiritual autobiography often serves as an endorsement of their religion.
A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography. While an autobiography typically focuses on the "life and times" of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on the author's memories, feelings and emotions.
Memoirs have often been written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record and publish an account of their public exploits. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili or Commentaries on the Civil War is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
French examples from the same period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz — and the Duc de Saint-Simon. The term "fictional autobiography" signifies novels about a fictional character written as though the character were writing their own autobiography, meaning that the character is the first-person narrator and that the novel addresses both internal and external experiences of the character.
Daniel Defoe 's Moll Flanders is an early example. Charles Dickens ' David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. Salinger 's The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. The term may also apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. In antiquity such works were typically entitled apologia , purporting to be self-justification rather than self-documentation. John Henry Newman 's Christian confessional work first published in is entitled Apologia Pro Vita Sua in reference to this tradition.
The pagan rhetor Libanius c. Augustine — applied the title Confessions to his autobiographical work, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau used the same title in the 18th century, initiating the chain of confessional and sometimes racy and highly self-critical, autobiographies of the Romantic era and beyond.
Augustine's was arguably the first Western autobiography ever written, and became an influential model for Christian writers throughout the Middle Ages. It tells of the hedonistic lifestyle Augustine lived for a time within his youth, associating with young men who boasted of their sexual exploits; his following and leaving of the anti-sex and anti-marriage Manichaeism in attempts to seek sexual morality; and his subsequent return to Christianity due to his embracement of Skepticism and the New Academy movement developing the view that sex is good, and that virginity is better, comparing the former to silver and the latter to gold; Augustine's views subsequently strongly influenced Western theology .
Confessions will always rank among the great masterpieces of western literature. In the spirit of Augustine's Confessions is the 12th-century Historia Calamitatum of Peter Abelard , outstanding as an autobiographical document of its period. One of the first great autobiographies of the Renaissance is that of the sculptor and goldsmith Benvenuto Cellini — , written between and , and entitled by him simply Vita Italian : Life.
He declares at the start: "No matter what sort he is, everyone who has to his credit what are or really seem great achievements, if he cares for truth and goodness, ought to write the story of his own life in his own hand; but no one should venture on such a splendid undertaking before he is over forty. Another autobiography of the period is De vita propria , by the Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer Gerolamo Cardano The earliest known autobiography written in English is the Book of Margery Kempe , written in Extracts from the book were published in the early sixteenth century but the whole text was published for the first time only in Possibly the first publicly available autobiography written in English was Captain John Smith's autobiography published in  which was regarded by many as not much more than a collection of tall tales told by someone of doubtful veracity.
This changed with the publication of Philip Barbour's definitive biography in which, amongst other things, established independent factual bases for many of Smith's "tall tales", many of which could not have been known by Smith at the time of writing unless he was actually present at the events recounted.
Jarena Lee — was the first African American woman to have a published biography in the United States. Following the trend of Romanticism , which greatly emphasized the role and the nature of the individual, and in the footsteps of Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Confessions , a more intimate form of autobiography, exploring the subject's emotions, came into fashion. Stendhal 's autobiographical writings of the s, The Life of Henry Brulard and Memoirs of an Egotist , are both avowedly influenced by Rousseau.
With the rise of education, cheap newspapers and cheap printing, modern concepts of fame and celebrity began to develop, and the beneficiaries of this were not slow to cash in on this by producing autobiographies. It became the expectation—rather than the exception—that those in the public eye should write about themselves—not only writers such as Charles Dickens who also incorporated autobiographical elements in his novels and Anthony Trollope , but also politicians e.
Henry Brooks Adams , philosophers e. Increasingly, in accordance with romantic taste, these accounts also began to deal, amongst other topics, with aspects of childhood and upbringing—far removed from the principles of "Cellinian" autobiography. From the 17th century onwards, "scandalous memoirs" by supposed libertines , serving a public taste for titillation, have been frequently published. Typically pseudonymous , they were and are largely works of fiction written by ghostwriters.
So-called "autobiographies" of modern professional athletes and media celebrities—and to a lesser extent about politicians—generally written by a ghostwriter , are routinely published. Some celebrities, such as Naomi Campbell , admit to not having read their "autobiographies". Autobiography has become an increasingly popular and widely accessible form.
Maggie Nelson 's book The Argonauts is one of the recent autobiographies. Maggie Nelson calls it "autotheory"—a combination of autobiography and critical theory. A genre where the "claim for truth" overlaps with fictional elements though the work still purports to be autobiographical is autofiction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Self-written biography. For other uses, see Autobiography disambiguation.
Main article: Memoir. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Biography portal. Retrieved 7 February Design and Truth in Autobiography. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. Oxford University Press. George Bull, The Autobiography , London p. The book of Margery Kempe. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin. Rutgers University Press. Categories : Autobiographies Biography genre Works about history s neologisms. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Articles needing additional references from December All articles needing additional references Articles containing Persian-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers.
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The word "autobiography" was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in in the English periodical The Monthly Review , when he suggested the word as a hybrid, but condemned it as "pedantic". However, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in Roy Pascal differentiates autobiography from the periodic self-reflective mode of journal or diary writing by noting that "[autobiography] is a review of a life from a particular moment in time, while the diary, however reflective it may be, moves through a series of moments in time". While biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints, autobiography may be based entirely on the writer's memory. The memoir form is closely associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self and more on others during the autobiographer's review of their own life. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective.
Originally published in Is there an art of autobiography? What are its origins and how has it come to acquire the form we know today? For what does the.
The Autobiography — Overview and Convergence 1. Range and Dimension of Autobiography 1. Definition, History, and Development of Autobiography 1.
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