File Name: adrenergic and cholinergic drugs .zip
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Cholinergic agonists are the name given to a group of medicines that mimic the actions of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is one of the most common neurotransmitters in our body, and it has actions in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The peripheral nervous system consists of the autonomic nervous system which regulates involuntary processes including digestion and breathing and the somatic nervous system, which transmits signals from the central nervous system and external stimuli to skeletal muscle and also mediates hearing, sight, and touch. The autonomic nervous system can be further broken down into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Cholinergic drug , any of various drugs that inhibit , enhance , or mimic the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine , the primary transmitter of nerve impulses within the parasympathetic nervous system —i. Acetylcholine release by nerve impulses can be blocked by botulinum toxin , a very potent chemical that is produced in food contaminated by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum and is an occasional cause of severe food poisoning botulism. The most serious effect is paralysis of the skeletal muscle. However, when botulinum toxin is locally injected, it can be used to treat severe muscle spasm or severe, uncontrollable sweating. Under such trade names as Botox , it is also used for cosmetic purposes; botulinum toxin injected locally will paralyze muscles of the face, thus relaxing the skin and reducing wrinkles.
First we will take a look at the different divisions of the nervous system. Direct-acting cholinergic drugs bind to cholinergic receptors on specific effector organs, stimulating the organ in a similar way as ACh. Too much cholinergic medication can result in overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, causing unwanted side effects. Anticholinergic agents — Drugs that block the action of ACh on the parasympathetic nervous system. The effect of the drug may be therapeutic, but becomes an adverse reaction if severe or if the drug is given for another purpose or if there is an overdose.
Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. Choline also prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into cells. The parasympathetic nervous system , which uses acetylcholine almost exclusively to send its messages, is said to be almost entirely cholinergic. Neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system , the basal forebrain , and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic, as are the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands. The hypothesis states that a possible cause of AD is the reduced synthesis of acetylcholine , a neurotransmitter involved in both memory and learning, two important components of AD. Many current drug therapies for AD are centered on the cholinergic hypothesis, although not all have been effective. Studies performed in the s demonstrated significant impairment of cholinergic markers in Alzheimer's patients.
Adrenergic Receptors. • Alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, and beta • Drugs that stimulate the receptors are called agonists. D th t bl k th t. • Drugs that.
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Adrenergic drugs are medications that stimulate certain nerves in your body. They do this either by mimicking the action of the chemical messengers epinephrine and norepinephrine or by stimulating their release. These drugs are used in many life-threatening conditions, including cardiac arrest, shock, asthma attack, or allergic reaction.
Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Heart pp Cite as. The autonomic nervous system is the major system extrinsic to the heart that regulates myocardial contractility. This system can be subdivided on the basis of anatomy, functional effects, and neurotransmitters released from postganglionic nerves into two major divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems fig.
The effects of systemic administration of cholinergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic drugs on the afternoon surge of plasma prolactin was investigated using ovariectomized, polyestradiol phosphate PEP -injected rats bearing aortic catheters. Basal prolactin levels were elevated and similar after PEP administration for a period of 5 weeks, and an afternoon surge in plasma prolactin persisted for a period of 3 weeks before the magnitude of the surge diminished. The plasma estradiol levels were significantly higher for the and h samples than for the and h samples. Cornified vaginal epithelia were predominant in the vaginal smears of all animals throughout the day experimental period. The cholinergic agonists arecoline, nicotine, and carbachol significantly inhibited the afternoon surge of prolactin.
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