File Name: two aspects of language and two types of aphasic disturbances .zip
Jakobson, Roman On Language. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Hence any actual grouping of linguistic units binds them into a superior unit: combination and contexture are two faces of the same operation. A selection between alternatives implies the possibility of substituting one for the other, equivalent in one respect and different in another. Actually, selection and substitution are two faces of the same operation. The constituents of a context are in a state of contiguity , while in a substitution set signs are linked by various degrees of similarity which fluctuate between the equivalence of synonyms and the common core of antonyms.
Metaphor drawing a similarity between two things and metonymy drawing a contiguity between two things are two fundamental opposite poles along which a discourse with human language is developed. The couple metaphor-metonymy had a prominent role in the renewal of the field of rhetoric in the s. According to Freud 's work , condensation and displacement from German Verdichtung and Verschiebung are two closely linked concepts. In , Jacques Lacan , inspired by an article by linguist Roman Jakobson , argued that the unconscious has the same structure of a language, and that condensation and displacement are equivalent to the poetic functions of metaphor and metonymy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The second selection is from Style in Language ; first delivered at a conference in Both selections are transcribed from the Jakobson pieces in the David Lodge anthology, cited in some previous ER readings; the page range for the Jakobson stuff is 32 - The varieties of aphasia [severe language disorder] are numerous and diverse, but all of them lie between the two polar types just described. Every form of aphasic disturbance consists in some impairment, more or less severe, either of the faculty for selection and substitution or for combination and contexture. The former affliction involves a deterioration of metalinguistic operations, while the latter damages the capacity for maintaining the hierarchy of linguistic units. The relation of similarity is suppressed in the former, the relation of contiguity in the latter type of aphasia. Metaphor is alien to the similarity disorder, and metonymy to the contiguity disorder.
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It is proposed that three stages in language evolution could be distinguished: a primitive communication systems similar to those observed in other animals, including nonhuman primates; b initial communication systems using sound combinations lexicon but without relationships among the elements grammar ; and c advanced communication systems including word-combinations grammar. It is proposed that grammar probably originated from the internal representation of actions, resulting in the creation of verbs; this is an ability that depends on the so-called Broca's area and related brain networks. It is suggested that grammar is the basic ability for the development of so-called metacognitive executive functions. Diverse disciplines have contributed to advancing our understanding on the origins and evolution of language: linguistics, neuroanatomy, archeology, comparative psychology, and genetics [ 1 — 27 ]. As a matter of fact, the origins and evolution of human language represent particularly complex and intriguing questions.
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Saussure has a view that every speech is divided from the langue and that the process of choice of words has a two-fold character: Syntagma combination and Paradigma selection. Syntagma comes in to play whenever we form a sentence whereas Paradigma applies at every stage that is any noun used in a sentence is actually, after we have selected it from the vast inventory of language. Jackson, like Saussure realizes the fundamental role, which combination and selection play in language. The selection and combination do not occur consecutively, but intermingle at every point, and that they operate and cooperate at every level of speech. Messages are constructed by a combination of a horizontal movement, which conjoins words, and a vertical movement, which selects the particular word from a substitution set of similar items.
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On the other hand, similarity and contiguity are the two relations that underlie language structures. Applying these dichotomies to the study of abnormal speech behavior, Jakobson divides all aphasic disturbances into two major types: similarity disorders and contiguity disorders.
Saussure, in fact, asserts that. The progressive removal of semiotics, the opposing definitions of the task of linguistics well summarized in Bloomfield 2 with respect to Chomsky, 3 and other positions taken by different scholars seem to suggest the rising of some sort of scientific intolerance, which is incompatible both with the declaration of Saussure and, above all, with the profile of Jakobson. Nikolaj Trubeckoj lived in the same period, his life being significantly shorter
Aphasia is an impairment of language, affecting the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write. Aphasia can be so severe as to make communication with the patient almost impossible, or it can be very mild. Over a century of experience with the study of aphasia has taught us that particular components of language may be particularly damaged in some individuals.
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