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Media And Types Of Communication Pdf

media and types of communication pdf

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What is Communication?

Media is the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The development of early writing and paper enabled longer-distance communication systems such as mail , including in the Persian Empire Chapar Khaneh and Angarium and Roman Empire , which can be interpreted as early forms of media.

The Term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan , who stated in Counterblast : "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives.

They can be entrusted only to new artists because they are art forms. The phrase "mass media" was, according to H. Mencken , used as early as in the United States.

The term "medium" the singular form of "media" is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television. The role of regulatory authorities license broadcaster institutions, content providers, platforms and the resistance to political and commercial interference in the autonomy of the media sector are both considered as significant components of media independence.

In order to ensure media independence, regulatory authorities should be placed outside of governments' directives. The process of issuing licenses in many regions still lacks transparency and is considered to follow procedures that are obscure and concealing. In many countries, regulatory authorities stand accused of political bias in favor of the government and ruling party , whereby some prospective broadcasters have been denied licenses or threatened with the withdrawal of licenses.

In many countries, diversity of content and views have diminished as monopolies , fostered directly or indirectly by States. State control is also evident in the increasing politicization of regulatory bodies operationalized through transfers and appointments of party-aligned individuals to senior positions in regulatory authorities. Governments worldwide have sought to extend regulation to internet companies, whether connectivity providers or application service providers , and whether domestically or foreign-based.

The impact on journalistic content can be severe, as internet companies can err too much on the side of caution and take down news reports, including algorithmically, while offering inadequate opportunities for redress to the affected news producers.

In Western Europe , self-regulation provides an alternative to state regulatory authorities. In such contexts, newspapers have historically been free of licensing and regulation, and there has been repeated pressure for them to self-regulate or at least to have in-house ombudsmen.

However, it has often been difficult to establish meaningful self-regulatory entities. In many cases, self-regulations exists in the shadow of state regulation, and is conscious of the possibility of state intervention. In many countries in Central and Eastern Europe , self-regulatory structures seems to be lacking or have not historically been perceived as efficient and effective. The rise of satellite delivered channels, delivered directly to viewers, or through cable or online systems, renders much larger the sphere of unregulated programing.

There are, however, varying efforts to regulate the access of programmers to satellite transponders in parts of the Western Europe and North American region, the Arab region and in Asia and the Pacific. The Arab Satellite Broadcasting Charter was an example of efforts to bring formal standards and some regulatory authority to bear on what is transmitted, but it appears to not have been implemented.

Self-regulation is expressed as a preferential system by journalists but also as a support for media freedom and development organizations by intergovernmental organizations such as UNESCO and non-governmental organizations. There has been a continued trend of establishing self-regulatory bodies, such as press councils, in conflict and post-conflict situations.

Major internet companies have responded to pressure by governments and the public by elaborating self-regulatory and complaints systems at the individual company level, using principles they have developed under the framework of the Global Network Initiative. The Global Network Initiative has grown to include several large telecom companies alongside internet companies such as Google , Facebook and others, as well as civil society organizations and academics.

Facebook has created new buttons for users to report content they believe is false, following previous strategies aimed at countering hate speech and harassment online. These changes reflect broader transformations occurring among tech giants to increase their transparency. As indicated by the Ranking Digital Rights Corporate Accountability Index, most large internet companies have reportedly become relatively more forthcoming in terms of their policies about transparency in regard to third party requests to remove or access content, especially in the case of requests from governments.

This 14 million USD investment by groups including the Ford Foundation and Facebook was launched in so its full impact remains to be seen. It will, however, complement the offerings of other networks such as the International Fact-Checking Network launched by the Poynter Institute in which seeks to outline the parameters of the field.

Media technology has made viewing increasingly easier as time has passed throughout history. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail , Skype , and Facebook have brought people closer together and created new online communities.

However, some may argue that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face. Therefore, it is an important source of communication. In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media such as television and print media such as newspapers are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies.

In addition to this "advertising" role, media is nowadays a tool to share knowledge all around the world. Analysing the evolution of medium within the society, Popkin [20] assesses the important role of media, by building connection between politics , culture and economic life and the society: for instance periodical newspaper has been an opportunity to first advertise and second to be up-to-date with current foreign affairs or the nation economic situation. In the meantime, Willinsky [21] was promoting the role of modern technology as a way to come across cultural, gender, national barriers.

He saw the internet as an opportunity to establish a fair and equal system of knowledge: as internet may be accessible to anyone, any published information may be read and consulted by anyone.

Therefore, the internet is a sustainable solution to overcome the "gap" between developed and developing countries as both will get a chance to learn from each other.

Canagarajah [22] is addressing the issue of unbalanced relations between the North and South countries, asserting that Western countries tend to impose their own ideas on developing countries. Therefore, internet is way to re-establish balance, by for instance enhance publication of newspaper, academic journal from developing countries. Christen [23] is the one who created a system that provide access to knowledge and protect people's customs and culture. Indeed, in some traditional societies, some genders cannot have access to a certain type of knowledge therefore respecting these customs limit the scope of dissemination but still allow the diffusion of knowledge.

Within this process of dissemination, media would play a role of "intermediaries", that is say translation an academic research into a journalistic format, accessible by lay audience Levin [24]. Consequently, media is a modern form of communication aiming at spreading knowledge within the whole world, regardless any form of discrimination. Media, through media and communications psychology , has helped to connect diverse people from far and near a geographical location.

It has also helped in the aspect of on-line or Internet businesses and other activities that have an on-line version. All media intended to affect human behavior is initiated through communication and the intended behavior is couched in psychology. Therefore, understanding media and communications psychology is fundamental in understanding the social and individual effects of media. The expanding field of media and communications psychology combines these established disciplines in a new way.

Timing change based on innovation and efficiency may not have a direct correlation with technology. The information revolution is based on modern advancements. During the 19th century, the information "boom" rapidly advanced because of postal systems, an increase in newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing". These advancements were made due to the increase of people becoming literate and educated. Biases in the media that affect religious or ethnic minorities take the form of racism in the media and religious bias in the media.

In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long-distance communication.

The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in and led to common communication via analog and digital media :.

Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people many-to-many communication via e-mail , Internet forums , and teleportation. On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication television, cinema , radio, newspaper , magazines , and also social media.

Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family. Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet.

Electronic media now comes in the forms of computers tablets , laptops and desktops , cell phones , MP3 players , DVDs , video game systems , radios, and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication.

The spike in electronic media really started to grow in when the release of the first iPhone came out. The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software application software used to play audio sound and video visual object with or without sound.

In modern terms, the term "media" includes all the software which are used in PC personal computer or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; today, however, hard discs used to increase the installation capacity of data of computer are an example of electronic media.

This type of hard disc is becoming increasingly smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media magnetic stripe whose application is common in the fastest growing information technology field. Modern day IT media is commonly used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to consumers.

In this magnetic strip , account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored. The main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded blank form , and data is normally stored at a later stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer. Games are a medium used to transfer messages. Apart from the usual graphic, auditory and narrative elements in video games, the game mechanics make it unique in the media field.

The players interact with the game and infer the message by observing the game's output. The game mechanics can discriminate against particular actions while encouraging others, thus leading the players to conclude that a certain behavior is more likely to produce the desired outcomes.

Although this is commonly and successfully used for entertainment purposes it can also be used as a tool for public relations — for example as advergaming.

Gamification has been used to communicate in other areas as well. The game design video lessons show Extra Credits has criticized China's Sesame Credit for gamifying the act of "being an obedient citizen", [28] using tools that are commonly used in games can incentivize a specific behavior to increase one's credit.

This article incorporates text from a free content work. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Storage and delivering agent of information or data.

For the medium that carries communications, see Transmission medium. Main articles: Media regulation and Media independence. Main article: Electronic media. Further information: Digital media , Information Age , and Social media. Media portal. The Chicago School of Media Theory. Retrieved New Media: A Critical Introduction. Globalization and Media: Global Village of Babel.

Five Types of Communication

Have you considered your most practiced activity, one that you voluntarily exercise almost as often as your breathing? But while it is completely voluntary, our communication is not always conscious. We sometimes communicate without our clear awareness, leading to misleading or even conflicting expressions of our self. Watch our Demo Courses and Videos. And there lies the key to superlative communication: awareness.

Media is the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The development of early writing and paper enabled longer-distance communication systems such as mail , including in the Persian Empire Chapar Khaneh and Angarium and Roman Empire , which can be interpreted as early forms of media. The Term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan , who stated in Counterblast : "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists because they are art forms. The phrase "mass media" was, according to H. Mencken , used as early as in the United States.

Types of Communication

Types of communication

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Business Communication - Media of Communication.

Interpersonal Skills:. Subscribe to our FREE newsletter and start improving your life in just 5 minutes a day. Communication is simply the act of transferring information from one place, person or group to another.

Communication can be categorized into three basic types: 1 verbal communication, in which you listen to a person to understand their meaning; 2 written communication, in which you read their meaning; and 3 nonverbal communication, in which you observe a person and infer meaning. Each has its own advantages, disadvantages, and even pitfalls. Verbal communications in business take place over the phone or in person. The medium of the Message is oral. This time, the Message is being conveyed from the Sender the Manager to the Receiver an employee named Bill by telephone.

Storytelling

For a better experience, click the icon above to turn off Compatibility Mode, which is only for viewing older websites. In previous years, I have outlined four types of communication, but I believe there are actually five types of communication: verbal, non-verbal, written, listening, and visual. Verbal communication occurs when we engage in speaking with others. It can be face-to-face, over the telephone, via Skype or Zoom, etc. Some verbal engagements are informal, such as chatting with a friend over coffee or in the office kitchen, while others are more formal, such as a scheduled meeting. Regardless of the type, it is not just about the words, it is also about the caliber and complexity of those words, how we string those words together to create an overarching message, as well as the intonation pitch, tone, cadence, etc.

Media or channel is the means or ways of transmitting the messages from sender to the receiver. The media of oral communication are face to face conversation , telephone or mobile, conference, meetings etc.

Communications is a continuous process which mainly involves three elements viz. The elements involved in the communication process are explained below in detail:. Sender The sender or the communicator generates the message and conveys it to the receiver. He is the source and the one who starts the communication.

Communication skills are vital to a healthy, efficient workplace. There are many different ways to communicate, each of which play an important role in sharing information. In this article, we take a closer look at the different types of communication and how to strengthen your skills in each.

12.5 Different Types of Communication

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