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Third Edition. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This classic work explores the vast differences between oral Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word by Orality is thought and verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy especially writing and print are unfamiliar to most of the population.
Walter Jackson Ong SJ November 30, — August 12, was an American Jesuit priest , professor of English literature , cultural and religious historian , and philosopher. His major interest was in exploring how the transition from orality to literacy influenced culture and changed human consciousness.
In he served as elected president of the Modern Language Association. In he graduated from Rockhurst High School. He worked in printing and publishing prior to entering the Society of Jesus in , and was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in After completing his dissertation on the French logician and educational reformer Peter Ramus — and Ramism under the supervision of Perry Miller at Harvard University in , Ong returned to Saint Louis University, where he would teach for the next 30 years.
In he received his Ph. In he served as president of the Milton Society of America. In he served as elected president of the Modern Language Association of America. He was very active on the lecture circuit as well as in professional organizations. Ong died in in St. Louis, Missouri. A major concern of Ong's works is the impact that the shift from orality to literacy has had on culture and education.
Writing is a technology like other technologies fire, the steam engine, etc. These include culture, economics, politics, art, and more. Furthermore, even a small amount of education in writing transforms people's mentality from the holistic immersion of orality to interiorization and individuation. Many of the effects of the introduction of the technology of writing are related to the fact that oral cultures require strategies of preserving information in the absence of writing.
These include, for example, a reliance on proverbs or condensed wisdom for making decisions, epic poetry, and stylized culture heroes wise Nestor, crafty Odysseus. Writing makes these features no longer necessary, and introduces new strategies of remembering cultural material, which itself now changes.
Because cultures at any given time vary along a continuum between full orality and full literacy, Ong distinguishes between primary oral cultures which have never known writing , cultures with craft literacy such as scribes , and cultures in a transition phase from orality to literacy, in which some people know of writing but are illiterate - these cultures have "residual orality".
According to Adrian Johns ' foreword to the edition, Ong was urged to research Ramus after his graduate mentor, Marshall McLuhan had no particular interest in Ong's original subject, Gerard Manley Hopkins.
McLuhan vigorously encouraged Ong's work, and eventually drew upon his former student's perspective on Ramism to write his own pivotal work, The Gutenberg Galaxy. Ong details how the spatialization and quantification of thought in dialectic and logic during the Middle Ages enabled "a new state of mind" to emerge in print culture , which is associated with the emergence of modern science. The companion volume, Ramus and Talon Inventory is a notable work that contributes to the field known today as book history.
Therein, Ong briefly describes more than volumes mostly in Latin that he had tracked down in more than libraries in Europe. Peter Ramus — , was a French humanist, logician, and educational reformer whose textbook method of analyzing subjects was very widely adopted in many academic fields.
In "Ramist Classroom Procedure and the Nature of Reality", Ong discusses Ramism as a transition phase between the Classical style of education and the modern one.
Ramism might seem merely quaint, perhaps artistically lethal, but of no great importance. Yet its great spread will hardly allow us to regard it as educationally insignificant. As a matter of fact, it has educational significance of the headiest sort, for it implies no less than that it is the "arts" or curriculum subjects which hold the world together. Nothing is accessible for "use," that is, for active intussusception the assimilation of new material and its dispersal among preexistent matter by the human being, until it has first been put through the curriculum.
The schoolroom is by implication the doorway to reality, and indeed the only doorway. It is a pioneering work in cultural studies and media ecology. He writes, "[my] works do not maintain that the evolution from primary orality through writing and print to an electronic culture, which produces secondary orality, causes or explains everything in human culture and consciousness. Rather, [my] thesis is relationist: major developments, and very likely even all major developments, in culture and consciousness, are related, often in unexpected intimacy, to the evolution of the word from primary orality to its present state.
But the relationships are varied and complex, with cause and effect often difficult to distinguish". Ong subsequently developed his observations regarding polemic in The Presence of the Word — in his book length study Fighting for Life: Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness , the published version of his Messenger Lectures at Cornell University. In Ong's most widely known work, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word , he attempts to identify the distinguishing characteristics of orality by examining thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy especially writing and print are unfamiliar to most of the population.
Ong drew heavily on the work of Eric A. Havelock , who suggested a fundamental shift in the form of thought coinciding with the transition from orality to literacy in Ancient Greece. Ong describes writing as a technology that must be laboriously learned, and which effects the first transformation of human thought from the world of sound to the world of sight.
This transition has implications for structuralism , deconstruction , speech-act and reader-response theory, the teaching of reading and writing skills to males and females, social studies , biblical studies , philosophy , and cultural history generally. This page selection of Ong's works is organized on the themes of orality and rhetoric. Taken together, these three essays make up a coherent approach to the study of written literature against the background of oral tradition.
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Чатрукьян посмотрел на комнату Третьего узла - не следит ли за ним криптограф. - Какого черта, - промычал он себе под нос. Под его ногами была потайная дверь, почти неразличимая на полу. В руке он сжимал ключ, взятый из лаборатории систем безопасности.
С какой целью. - Танкадо мог посылать фиктивные сообщения на неиспользованный адрес в надежде, что мы его обнаружим и решим, что он обеспечил себе защиту. В таком случае ему не нужно будет передавать пароль кому-то .
Солги и столкни лбами своих врагов. - Это чистая правда! - кричал. - Мы должны позвать людей на помощь. Нам обоим грозит опасность.
Нравится нам это или нет, но демократию от анархии отделяет не очень-то прочная дверь, и АНБ ее охраняет. Хейл задумчиво кивнул: - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Сьюзан была озадачена. - Это по-латыни, - объяснил Хейл.
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