File Name: a history of pakistan and its origins .zip
The history of Pakistan encompasses the region of the Indus Valley ,     which spans the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern Iranian plateau. Situated on the first coastal migration route of Homo sapiens out of Africa, the region was inhabited early by modern humans. The ensuing millennia saw the region of present-day Pakistan absorb many influences—represented among others in the ancient Buddhist sites of Taxila , and Takht-i-Bahi , the 14th-century Islamic - Sindhi monuments of Thatta , and the 17th-century Mughal monuments of Lahore.
Environmental assessment is regarded as a process that plays an integrative role, where the social, economic and biophysical systems are combined into a holistic picture of the world. Concern about the impact of human activities on the environment we live in has been evident throughout history, e. For a summary of notable events influencing environmental change and management, go through this Table 1. It was not until the s that this concern, as a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization and the resultant pressures on natural resources, received a more public and global impetus.
The critique on technology and the harmful effects it has on the environment and sustainability, continued throughout the sixties and eventually led to the evolution of the practice of Environmental Assessment and Management. Increase of environmental awareness After decades of continued failure of the political establishment in the United States to recognise the degradation of the environment, two events in the beginning of laid the foundation for environmental awareness and practice for the future.
It requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision-making processes, by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions.
The second was a massive Earth Day demonstration — planned by Senator Gaylord Nelson in April — in which 20 million people across the country participated. NEPA was the first environmental law that required Environmental Impact Statements EISs of proposed projects that will significantly affect the quality of the human environment.
Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.
During the early years, EIAs mainly focused on the biophysical impacts of proposed projects i. As the process matured, the range of aspects increased and today social, health and economic issues are also examined. However, the integration and linking of biophysical and socio-economic impacts do not occur everywhere and to the same extent. In some countries social impacts are only given limited consideration, while in others the EIA process is supplemented by social and health impact assessments, thereby limiting the extent of integration.
The main focus of EIA is how the development should mitigate the negative environmental impacts, if it is approved. In general an EIA is done for specific development projects, such as nuclear power stations, large dam developments and housing developments. In a sense, EIA largely reacts to development proposals rather than proactively anticipating them.
It does not consider whether , where and what type of development will be best for economic and social development, as well as the sustainability of the environment and its resources.
Also, EIAs lack the strategic vision and spatial scope that could allow for the consideration of cumulative impacts of multiple projects and events in an area. For example, the building of one luxury hotel on an unspoilt Tanzanian beach might not have a significant negative impact on the environment, but the development of a 20km stretch of beach will definitely have an impact.
Therefore, the project-to-project approach of EIA does not guarantee environmental quality. Tiering of environmental assessments at different planning levels, should allow for information flow through the whole planning process — from policy to project level — thereby limiting the repetitive gathering of information, as well as providing a better context within which to enhance decision-making.
Strategic Environmental Assessment These shortcomings in the EIA process led to the need for a more strategic approach to EA that can be incorporated in the policy, planning and programming level, allowing for a proactive process that will integrate the concept of sustainability much better than EIA.
Policies, plans and programs can be defined as:. SEA can strengthen EIA by establishing an appropriate context within which tiered decision-making is done, therefore determining the need and feasibility of initiatives and proposals. Figure 1 demonstrates this tiered approach. The concept of SEA is put forward as the assessment tool that addresses environmental implications of decisions made on a broader, more strategic level.
Expected amplitude of SEA interventions Of course, planning is not a linear process and as experience and knowledge increase, so does the understanding of different impacts on the environment improve.
Hence, the tiering concept does not have a one-directional flow — from the strategic to the specific. Legislation and regulatory requirements To increase the effectiveness and strength of environmental assessment, legal directives or policies can be applied to mandate the implementation thereof. Figure 2: Date of acceptance of EIA legislation by country. It stipulates the minimum procedural requirements for an EIA process and defines the projects that need to undergo EIA.
Member States are given a certain degree of freedom in the realisation of the Directive, which inevitably have an impact on the quality and effectiveness of EIA on development projects. This is due to the differences in political and social dynamics, legal and administrative frameworks, culture, and history. The Commission failed to agree on its contents until It was finally adopted in May and came into effect in June SEA is now mandatory for all plans and programs prepared for agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, industry, transport, waste management, water management, telecommunications, tourism, and town and country planning or land use.
Using spatial information management in EA Very early in the history of environmental assessment, the potential benefits of using spatial information to enhance the decision-making process was realised. They quickly became involved in projects related to environmental questions, due to the growing recognition of environmental problems in the United States during the early s, as discussed above. No other computerised system can handle these properties as well as GIS.
The acceptance of using GIS technology to enhance environmental decision-making became even more pronounced after it was specifically mentioned in Agenda 21 as an effective tool. The appeal of GIS to environmental scientists and managers rests in its ability to collate data from diverse sources into a consistent form.
It can also be used to develop empirical relationships between resource loss and environmental degradation, making GIS a valuable tool for assessing cumulative impacts, a key feature of environmental assessment. Many of the skills of environmental GIS are based on specific GIS functions of varying degrees of simplicity and complexity, but one application area that still attracts widespread use is the application of GIS to the basic task of data integration, i.
The task is basic in the sense that it often comes first, providing a foundation for subsequent filtering, analysis or modeling. Many GIS professionals, however, having been confronted with this task, would argue that in practice it is often far from simple, and therefore far from basic.
Data aggregation and standardisation pose significant technical challenges when the source data are difficult to locate, and are of dubious quality and diverse standards. But in addition, aggregation challenges the GIS operative and user with problematic issues of definition, which may undermine the efficacy of a dataset as an indicator. What data should be used? What is the value of this data and how reliably can it be used as indicators of environmental quality, vulnerability or impact?
It is easy to discount these problems as being the responsibility of the environmental manager, not the environmental GIS specialist, but very often the two are the same person and in other cases the choice of indicators and standards for data integration represents a fusion of management and GIS issues and requirements.
EIA systems for different countries are very distinctive. For example, the provisions made for public participation can vary between countries, reflecting their traditions and styles of government. In Malaysia, for example, EIA was implemented through administrative procedures between and see the Staerdahl et al, reference in the readings below.
After EIA became mandatory for certain prescribed activities. For this activity, complete the empty boxes in the flowchart Figure 3 describing the federal EIA process in Malaysia by using the Staerdahl reference below. Figure 3. Figure 3: EIA procedure in Malaysia. Tourism Management.
Working Report. Roskilde University, Denmark. An Application in the Lower Mekong Basin. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Al Laxenburg, Austria. Accessibility Tools.
Search for:. In particular, it requires federal agencies to prepare an environmental impact statement for major actions or projects that can affect the environment; and A Council on Environmental Quality CEQ was established in the Executive Office of the President to oversee and coordinate all federal environmental efforts. Policies, plans and programs can be defined as: Policy — An inspiration and guidance for action: e.
Figure 1: Conceptual diagram of SEA. Activity Activity 1: EIA systems for different countries are very distinctive.
Meri behan ne khudkhushi isliye ki thi kyunki uske sasural wale bahut tang karte the. Over the period of time, we will add more and more such stories to this list. Urdu and Hindi Stories Meri nayi nayi shaadi huvi thi mere husband ki bilaspurme transfer huvi thi hum naye naye rahaneko gaye the makan malik mere husaband ka do. Your immediate family includes your father, mother and siblings. A complete list of Family movies in Usually the members of the wider family would belong exclusively either to a paternal or maternal descent.
Environmental assessment is regarded as a process that plays an integrative role, where the social, economic and biophysical systems are combined into a holistic picture of the world. Concern about the impact of human activities on the environment we live in has been evident throughout history, e. For a summary of notable events influencing environmental change and management, go through this Table 1. It was not until the s that this concern, as a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization and the resultant pressures on natural resources, received a more public and global impetus. The critique on technology and the harmful effects it has on the environment and sustainability, continued throughout the sixties and eventually led to the evolution of the practice of Environmental Assessment and Management. Increase of environmental awareness After decades of continued failure of the political establishment in the United States to recognise the degradation of the environment, two events in the beginning of laid the foundation for environmental awareness and practice for the future. It requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision-making processes, by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions.
A History of Pakistan and Its Origins (Anthem South Asian Studies) [Jaffrelot, Christophe] on tapnetwork2015.org *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A History of.
Christophe Jaffrelot, ed. A History of Pakistan and Its Origins.
India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization. The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China.
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Originally published in French in 1 , this English translation of A History of Pakistan and its Origins was prepared for the English reader and released following the events of September This reviewer has not read the original French edition and he cannot therefore know if the chapters of the English version mirror the former. Single volume histories are generally the endeavour of a sole author. A former French ambassador to Pakistan has also authored one of the chapters. Drawing together so large a team for the production of a thin volume on the history of Pakistan is a substantial task, notably because the editor did not intend to produce a book containing a series of individual articles, but rather an integrated and seamless presentation. The several authors are identified only by a page in the front matter of the book, which lists their relevant chapters.
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