File Name: laser cutting and welding .zip
This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it. If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. Report DMCA. Home current Explore. Words: 5, Pages: 8. However, they only produce planar 2D geometry.
One approach to creating non-planar objects is to cut the object in horizontal slices and to stack and glue them. This approach, however, requires manual effort for the assembly and time for the glue to set, defeating the purpose of using a fast fabrication tool.
We propose eliminating the assembly step with our system LaserStacker. The key idea is to use the laser cutter to not only cut but also to weld. Users place not one acrylic sheet, but a stack of acrylic sheets into their cutter.
In a single process, LaserStacker cuts each individual layer to shape through all layers above it , welds layers by melting material at their interface, and heals undesired cuts in higher layers. When users take out the object from the laser cutter, it is already assembled. To allow users to model stacked objects efficiently, we built an extension to a commercial 3D editor SketchUp that provides tools for defining which parts should be connected and which remain loose.
When users hit the export button, LaserStacker converts the 3D model into cutting, welding, and healing instructions for the laser cutter. We show how LaserStacker not only allow making static objects, such as architectural models, but also objects with moving parts and simple mechanisms, such as scissors, a simple pinball machine, and a mechanical toy with gears. Author Keywords: rapid prototyping; laser cutting.
Laser cutters, in contrast, allow for much faster fabrication, making them a popular tool for rapid prototyping. However, they can produce only 2D geometry, so the results are inherently flat. Figure 1: LaserStacker produces laser cut objects consisting of multiple layers of acrylic without requiring manual assembly: It assembles the object by not only cutting with the laser, but also welding, and healing the cut.
Three example objects: a a pinball table with spring 10 min , b an architectural model of our university campus 7 min , and c a simple but functional pair of scissors 3 min. One standard approach to creating non-flat objects is to cut horizontal slices of the object e. This requires manual assembly with alignment sticks and glue, and additional time waiting for the glue to set.
This limits the speed of the prototyping process. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted.
However, this requires specialized hardware. In industry, another approach is to use highfrequency lasers to weld material sheets together . However, this process not only require a special type of laser, but also special material in the form of transmissive and absorbent material sheets. After removing the surplus material, the scissors are ready to be used to actually cut paper Figure 1c.
We now look at step d , the cutting-welding-healingreleasing process, and step a the 3D editor in additional detail. In this paper, we propose a different approach to overcome the need for manual assembly: Instead of adding layers one by one, we suggest putting an entire stack of acrylic sheets at once into the laser cutter, then to use our cutting, welding, and healing technique to fabricate non-planar objects.
The bottom layer contains the first scissor outline. The middle layer contains the second scissor outline and an axle around which it rotates. The top layer contains a rectangular cover connected to the axle that prevents the scissor blades from falling apart. Figure 3: The scissors consist of three layers. Figure 4 illustrates the steps of the fabrication process: a To create the scissor outline in the bottom layer, LaserStacker first cuts through the top layer, then through the middle layer, and finally through the bottom layer.
In this particular case of cutting the scissor outline, this happens to be a desirable effect in that it already cuts the scissor outline in the middle layer. We will remove the scissor outline in the top layer surplus material later.
This requires LaserStacker to cut the top layer as well, which in this case does not fit our intended design. LaserStacker will thus heal this cut in a later step. Figure 2: Creating the scissors with LaserStacker. In addition, LaserStacker exports a file with corresponding power settings for the laser.
Like any welding in a lower layer, this causes all layers above to be welded as well, causing the axle to be connected all the way through to the top layer. In this particular case, this is desired. In other cases, LaserStacker would release the weld later. We now have two scissor blades combined by a rotary joint; however, the rotary joint still lacks a cover.
LaserStacker now welds this bridge to the two sides: To do this, LaserStacker first defocuses the laser by moving the cutting table away from the lens.
It then uses the defocused laser to heat up the region until the bridging sliver fuses with the material left and right.
When it cools down, the piece forms a strong side-by-side weld with the remaining acrylic and thereby closes the gap. While the cut is still visible to the human eye, the weld is strong enough that it allows the part to perform a mechanical function. Our technical evaluation shows that healing can sustain about kPa half the strength of welding. This cut only touches the top layer, thus has no side effects on any of the other layers.
After removing the surplus material, the scissors are complete and we are ready to cut paper with them. However, when cutting through a stack of layers, there are two things to note: 1 Cutting the lower layer requires cutting through all layers above. LaserStacker can heal the undesired cut on the top layer later. For example, in Figure 4, this happens in a when the scissor blade is cut in the bottom layer. LaserStacker can later release the weld to break the undesired connection.
Figure 6: Healing a cut: a creating a new cut in close proximity, b defocusing the laser and melting the piece to c create a strong side-by-side weld. After a few seconds, the liquefied acrylic solidifies again and welds these two layers together.
To weld multiple layers, LaserStacker repeats the process for each pair. As we show in the Technical Evaluation section, a welding of 10cm length with a 1mm cut width can sustain about 15kg weight, i. The cut is so close that the material evaporates completely, thereby releasing the weld. Figure 7: Releasing a weld: a creating a new cut in very close proximity, b the material evaporates and releases the weld. The tool is implemented as an extension to the standard 3D modeling software SketchUp .
Any weld tends to require two types of repair: First, welding cuts through one or more layers above. LaserStacker resolves this by healing the cut. Second, as illustrated by Figure 5b, welding always connects layers on both sides of the cut. Since only one of the two sides is typically desired, LaserStacker later releases the weld on the other sides. Figure 8 illustrates how we modeled the scissors from our earlier example. The LaserStacker editor responds by displaying a three-layer project in its 3D view.
The layers later on help users to align their design. The axle with cover contains a circular cut with a strong weld in the middle, which is achieved by cutting the spiral in the center. We scale the axle with cover to the right size and place it in the correct location on the scissors. We are done modeling now. We click the export button, which causes LaserStacker to convert the 3D model into an.
We load the files into the standard control panel of our laser cutter and send the cut job to the laser. Figure 8: Define a number of layers, b layer thicknesses. The LaserStacker extension causes the pull tool to snap the extrusion to the individual layers, making it easy to get the thickness right. LaserStacker responds by coloring the two blades differently, indicating that they are now disconnected.
Figure LaserStacker exports a an. We provide a custom editor for this class of objects as an extension to the SketchUp 3D editor. The key technical contribution is the export function that translates the 3D model into an instruction set for a standard laser cutter, which produces that object.
Figure 9: a Sketch scissors outline, use pull tool to extrude to first scissor outline, then b second scissor outline. Its main advantage is that it eliminates the need for assembly. Unlike LaserOrigami , which only produces origami-like geometry, LaserStacker allows building objects with moving parts.
We import an axle with cover master shape from the LaserStacker master shape library, which contains simple mechanisms and other commonly used parts. This works without healing. In wire mesh design , a 3D scaffold is created by laser cutting intersecting planar pieces, which are then used to bend the wire mesh into shape. Platener  is a research prototype that converts 3D model into laser-cuttable parts while preserving the functionality of the 3D object.
The most common approach to represent a 3D model with 2D parts is to convert it to a stack of 2D plates. This functionality is included in many commercial products, such as the 3D editor Autodesk D . Hildebrand et al. Laminated-Object Manufacturing  is a rapid prototyping technique that cuts layers of adhesive-coated materials oneby-one to shape using a knife or a laser cutter. The layers are stacked using a moving platform and automatically laminated. The MCor 3D printer , for instance, uses regular office paper to fabricate 3D objects.
Similarly, the layered fabric 3D printer  uses 2D sheets of fabric to form soft 3D objects. Laser Welding  is an industrial technique used to fuse layers of material together.
Plasma cutting is a process that cuts through electrically conductive materials by means of an accelerated jet of hot plasma. Typical materials cut with a plasma torch include steel , stainless steel , aluminum , brass and copper , although other conductive metals may be cut as well. Plasma cutting is often used in fabrication shops, automotive repair and restoration , industrial construction , and salvage and scrapping operations. Due to the high speed and precision cuts combined with low cost, plasma cutting sees widespread use from large-scale industrial CNC applications down to small hobbyist shops. The basic plasma cutting process involves creating an electrical channel of superheated, electrically ionized gas i. This is accomplished by a compressed gas oxygen, air, inert and others depending on material being cut which is blown through a focused nozzle at high speed toward the work piece. An electrical arc is then formed within the gas, between an electrode near or integrated into the gas nozzle and the work piece itself.
VanderWert, TL. The Hague, Netherlands. June 13—16, Multi-axis laser materials processing systems are having a significant impact on the way turbine engine parts are being cut, drilled, and welded. The success of laser cutting, drilling and welding is based in the ability to concentrate laser energy into a small area and to produce features having narrow heat affected zones. Reduced tooling expense, fast turnaround, and flexibility for handling design changes and for economical small lot manufacturing are some of the benefits associated with laser processing of turbine engine parts.
Laser Cutting & Welding. Suron owns a line of revolutionary micro-laser machinery for metal cutting. The use of laser cutting technology enables the company to.
Click to download and read pdf. Robert Gage obtained a patent for Union Carbide that same year and plasma arc techniques quickly developed for cutting any conductive metal at relatively high speeds. To initiate the process a pilot arc must first be generated to ionise the gas.
Headquarters Hungary Beckhoff Automation Kft. Beckhoff CNC controllers are used in oxy-fuel, plasma, laser and water jet processing for cutting and welding sheet metal. Two parameters are crucial for competitiveness here: the control speed and the scope of the CNC functions. The Beckhoff solution is superior in both respects. The Beckhoff solution is superior in both respects: Firstly, through high-performance control via EtherCAT, which enables cycle times of less than one millisecond and thus supports particularly fast cutting and welding applications.
Fabrication shop surprises even itself when brisk business prompts it to buy two laser systems at once. With seven people the company began as a vertically oriented fabricator of lead oxide battery manufacturing systems, primarily as a supplier to General Motors Delco division. Today it operates as a specialty OEM machinery and equipment builder, still building and shipping lead oxide battery machines. At PDF vertically oriented means the company, like an old-fashioned machine builder, does everything itself from design to machining, welding, wiring, metal cutting, and other production operations, including installation and startup of the systems. It has engineering personnel specializing in robotic, electrical system integration, electromechanical engineering, and fluid power. They take pride in their innovation capabilities, ready to take on any systems challenges.
Laser Material Processing pp Cite as. The idea of cutting with light has appealed to many from the first time they burnt paper on a sunny day with the help of a magnifying glass. Cutting centimetre thick steel Fig. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
It is a six-axis industrial robot with articulated kinematics for all continuous-path controlled tasks. They have a high path accuracy and very good positioning behavior due to a special calibration procedure carried out by the manufacturer. The robot consists of a fixed base frame, on which the rotating column turns about a vertical axis together with the link, arm and wrist. Catalog excerpts.
Blomquist, Paul A. The application of high-power industrial lasers to the production of structural shapes for shipbuilding has been analyzed. Results of the study indicate that fabricated shapes offer significant tangible and intangible benefits to the shipbuilder, and that the entire shipset of T's and I's can be cut from plate and welded to actual net shape for less cost than the purchase price of stock lengths of hot-rolled shapes.
Двести тридцать восемь? - воскликнула Сьюзан. - Разве мы не знаем, что в хиросимской бомбе был другой изотоп урана. Все вокруг недоуменно переглянулись.
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