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Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers is a truly practical book with no less than 35 detailed case studies that serve to illustrate concepts, relate different topics and introduce applications. Thermal designers of shell-and-tube heat exchangers STHE will find the book indispensable for understanding the mechanics of thermal-hydraulics in STHE's and thereby for utilizing commercially available software packages to produce optimum designs. The book explains the interplay of parameters and unravels many mysteries, converting the design activity from a mundane chore to a matter of joy. The book will be vital for operating plant engineers. Students and teachers of undergraduate and graduate courses in unfired vessel heat transfer will find this book essential for a good understanding of practical design of industrial STHE's.
Mukherjee rajiv. This book represents inIormation obtained Irom authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated.
A wide variety oI reIerences are listed. Every reasonable eIIort has been made to give reliable data and inIormation, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility Ior the validity oI all materials Ior the con- sequences oI their use. All rights reserved. This book, or any parts thereoI, may not be reproduced in any Iorm without written consent Irom the publisher.
Direct inquires to Begell House, Inc. ISBN: Printed in the United States oI America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 iii Dedication To the memory of my parents, who taught me to believe in myself To my wife, Kalpana, for her unflagging patience ana support To my aaughter, Shilpi, ana my son -in-law , Bappa, for their faith ana conviction Finally, to the reaaer, who maae the entire effort worthwhile iv Acknowledgments I am indebted to Almighty God Ior having given me the education, intelligence, opportu- nity, strength, and Iervor to write this book.
I am also indebted to all those Irom whom I learned heat exchanger design over the years. I regret it is not possible to recount their names individually Ior the simple reason that it would be too long a list!
It was he who led me to Bill in the Iirst place. This book is thereIore truly a collaborative eIIort, and the credit belongs to the human Iraternity at large rather than to any individual. He has over 33 years oI experience in the thermal design, revamping and troubleshooting oI air- cooled and shell-and-tube heat exchangers, and considerable experience in the design oI heat exchanger networks.
He has written several articles and presented many papers at technical symposia. Mukherjee has also served as Iaculty Ior numerous courses on heat exchanger design and operation, energy conservation, and heat exchanger networks, and presently teaches an intensive two-day in-house reIresher course in the design and opera- tion oI heat exchangers that can be oIIered at any plant or oIIice location around the world.
In his spare time, Mukherjee enjoys reading Kahlil Gibran is a big Iavorite , writing, listening to music and collecting quotations. He lives in New Delhi with his wiIe, Kalpana.
Their daughter, Shilpi, and her husband, Bappa, live in Illinois, with their baby son, Sohum. Shellsiae ana Tubesiae Its Consequences ana Mitigation Now chemical engineering, like all other Iields, is a very vast Iield but I ended up in the very narrow specialization oI thermal de- sign oI shell-and-tube and air-cooled heat exchangers.
However, Ior various reasons, this did not materialize and I con- tinue to rove the world oI unIired heat transIer.
Pinch technology came oI age around that time and proved to be a perIect Ioil and adjunct to heat exchanger thermal design. Buoyed by a positive Irame oI mind, I thought that it might be a good idea to share some oI the things that I had learned with readers across the world and started writing an odd paper or two Ior journals such as Chemical Engineering Progress and Hyarocarbon Processing.
A major accident leIt me severely handicapped and curtailed my mobility drastically. This proved to be a blessing in disguise as Iar as my literary prowess was concerned.
My desire to write this book was precipitated by the absence oI such a book. Recent heat exchanger design literature has been predominantly occupied by proceedings oI conIerences. There is no book on the market that explains the logic oI heat exchanger thermal design and gives practical suggestions, recommendations, and real-liIe case studies Ior actually designing industrial heat exchangers.
So I decided to write just such a book. The theoretical aspects oI single-phase heat transIer, condensation, and vaporization have been presented very well in several books.
So what was really required was a practical 'how to design book with numerous worked-out examples or case studies to embellish or illustrate a particular technique, Iacet, or style oI design. The thousands oI heat exchanger designs that I have been associated with over the last 33 years provided numerous such opportunities. They say that one picture is more eloquent than a thousand words. II you extend this logic, one appropriate illustration by a case study is more eminently didactic than a long dissertation on a particular subject as a case study leaves nothing to the imagination.
I have also always attempted to understand why things happen the way they do. For example, why do viscous liquids behave so poorly inside tubes?
Why does putting shells in series reduce the penalty due to temperature proIile distortion? Why is Ilow-induced vibration really a pressure drop problem?
And so on. Such an attitude has helped immensely in improving the quality oI the designs and I exhort all designers to adopt a similar attitude. This book has thereIore been written primarily Ior the heat exchanger thermal designer. But I am conIident that it will be useIul to process engineers as well, a signiIicant part oI whose routine job is to speciIy heat exchangers.
Since operating aspects are also oIten discussed, I trust it will be oI interest to plant operation specialists as well. Last but not least, it is my Iond hope that even undergraduate chemical and mechanical engineering students will Iind it interesting, inIormative, and useIul.
I still remember that when I was an undergraduate student, I used to long Ior more practical, real-liIe inIormation about industrial practice.
II one considers that many engineering graduates end up working in the chemical process industries, there may be a lot oI merit in adding such a Ilavor to heat transIer in the university curriculum, as indeed it is to all other Iields oI human learning. The juxtaposition oI industrial equipment design practice with basic theory will go a long way in making the subject more meaningIul. Being the Iirst book I have written, there is bound to be signiIicant scope Ior improvement.
I will be very grateIul to anyone oIIering positive guidance on shortcomings as well as inaccuracies. They are also used extensively in coal- and gas-based, nuclear, ocean thermal, and geothermal power generation Iacilities. Although strongly challenged by the plate heat exchanger in recent years, the STHE still remains the undisputed leader in the arena oI heat exchangers.
The reasons Ior this are maniIold: 1 STHEs are very Ilexible in size and can vary Irom less than one square meter to a thousand square meters and even more. Both mechanical as well as chemical cleaning programs can be employed. Evidently, since the STHE is the oldest model oI the heat exchanger, it has a well- established methodology Until the late s and early s, this knowledge was not esoteric but was widely understood. However, with the development oI the shellside stream analysis model and the subsequent advent oI the personal computer and tremendous computing speeds, powerIul soItware Ior the thermal design oI STHEs gradually evolved.
Today, several very sophisticated soItware packages are available Ior the thermal design oI STHEs, a task now carried out by engineering contractors, Iabricators, and operating companies all over the world, representing a wide global Iraternity. Since these soItware packages are very user-Iriendly as well, it is now very convenient to optimize and produce a near-perIect design Ior a given application. However, with the availability oI such superior soItware, there has been an undue dependence on the soItware and much oI the basic understanding oI thermal design has been lost.
In other words, these soItware packages are oIten employed as 'black boxes without the designer being truly in control oI the design process and understanding the nuances oI 2 design. It must be appreciated that soItware is only a tool and with any sophisticated soItware, a proper and sound understanding oI the Iundamental principles and interplay oI parameters is essential in order to exploit it successIully Ior producing an optimum design. The principal purpose oI writing this book is to help the heat exchanger thermal designer attain such an understanding.
As example is better than precept, several case studies are presented in this book in order to vividly bring out a particular methodology, principle, or practice that has been advocated. In thermal design, the basic sizing oI the heat exchanger is accomplished.
That is to say, parameters such as the number, outer diameter, thickness and length oI tubes, tube pitch, number oI tube passes, shell diameter, baIIle spacing and cut, nozzle sizes, and some other construction details are Irozen. In the subsequent activity oI mechanical design, the thicknesses and precise dimensions oI the various components are determined and a bill oI materials produced. Detailed engineering drawings are prepared based upon which actual Iabrication drawings are made.
In this book, as the title suggests, we shall talk principally about thermal design. Presently there is no book available on 'practical shell-and-tube heat exchanger thermal design. The books that are available dwell heavily or Iully on the theoretical aspects oI unIired heat transIer as they are applicable to shell-and-tube heat exchangers.
II they carry worked-out examples, these are very simplistic and certainly not comparable to what the commercial soItware designers employ Ior carrying out real-liIe designs. All these experiences have been put together in a structured, Iocused, logical, and didactic manner and special eIIort has been made at bringing out the interplay oI parameters Ior a thorough understanding oI basic issues. Now, we come to the individual chapters themselves.
Chapter 2, 'ClassiIication oI shell- and-tube heat exchangers, gives a detailed rundown oI the various components and constructional Ieatures oI STHEs, as a good understanding oI these is vital to the thermal design oI this equipment. For example, the thermal engineer must be very Iamiliar with the various components and their relationship, know when to use which type oI STHE and be aware oI the clearances between various components, some oI which are crucial. As such, this chapter will be oI considerable interest to mechanical designers oI STHEs as it explains the implications oI several constructional Ieatures on thermal design.
Chapter 3, 'Thermal design and its optimization: single-phase heat exchangers, is a very important chapter as it discusses various basic Ieatures which are relevant not just to single-phase heat exchangers, but to condensers and reboilers as well.
Shellside stream analysis and the consequent temperature proIile distortion with its associated penalty Iactor are explained at length. These are very basic concepts which Iorm much oI the Ioundation oI knowledge Ior heat exchanger design. The simultaneous optimization oI shellside and tubeside calculations is certainly not an easy task.
With so many parameters such as type oI shell, baIIling, tube pitch, and tube layout pattern , shellside optimization is itselI quite complex.
However, with the help oI logical explanation, arguments, and case studies, the design methodology is made easy to understand and apply. Chapter 4 is entitled, 'Mean temperature diIIerence. AIter discussing Iundamental 3 issues oI co-current and countercurrent Ilow, it progresses to a combination oI the two and the resultant F t correction Iactor. It discusses temperature cross, the use oI multiple shells in series, and the determination oI F t Ior various situations.
Finally it discusses shellside temperature proIile distortion and its associated penalty on the MTD oI a heat exchanger. A case study demonstrates how and when to reduce this penalty Iactor by the use oI multiple shells in series, even when there is no temperature cross. The allocation oI sides, that is, which stream should be allocated to the shellside oI an STHE and which stream to the tubeside, is oIten not a straightIorward process.
The several parameters that inIluence the selection process are discussed in considerable detail in Chapter 5, 'Allocation oI sides: shellside and tubeside. A case study guides the reader through the selection process. Chapter 6 is on the 'Methodology oI the use oI multiple shells. Multiple shells are oIten required to be used either in series or in parallel or in a combination thereoI. In some extreme situations, one side say, the shellside is connected in series while the other side in this case, the tubeside in parallel.
This chapter, embellished by two case studies, explores in detail the methodology oI selection oI multiple shells. Among other things, it is clearly brought out that multiple shells in series are not just used Ior 'temperature cross situations, but also to utilize allowable shellside pressure drop Iully, and oIten result in a lower Iirst cost when compared to a single-shell design.
We now move over to services and applications involving phase change. Chapter 7, 'Thermal design oI condensers, is a comprehensive elaboration oI this subject.
A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger designs. As its name implies, this type of heat exchanger consists of a shell a large pressure vessel with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes through the shell to transfer heat between the two fluids. The set of tubes is called a tube bundle, and may be composed of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat exchanger.
Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers is a truly practical book with no less than 35 detailed case studies that serve to illustrate concepts, relate different topics and introduce applications. Thermal designers of shell-and-tube heat exchangers STHE will find the book indispensable for understanding the mechanics of thermal-hydraulics in STHE's and thereby for utilizing. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Practical Thermal Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers is a practical book containing 35 detailed case studies that serve to illustrate concepts, relate different topics and introduce applications.
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the flexibility the designer has to allow for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. There are two main categories of Shell and Tube exchanger :. Regardless of the type of industry the exchanger is to be used in there are a number of common features see Condensers. A shell and tube exchanger consists of a number of tubes mounted inside a cylindrical shell. Two fluids can exchange heat, one fluid flows over the outside of the tubes while the second fluid flows through the tubes. Front Header—this is where the fluid enters the tubeside of the exchanger.
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