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Cancer Signs And Symptoms Pdf

cancer signs and symptoms pdf

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Colon cancer develops when tumorous growths develop in the large intestine. It is now the third most common type of cancer in the United States. The colon, or large intestine, is where the body draws out water and salt from solid wastes.

Signs and Symptoms

Colon cancer develops when tumorous growths develop in the large intestine. It is now the third most common type of cancer in the United States. The colon, or large intestine, is where the body draws out water and salt from solid wastes. The waste then moves through the rectum and exits the body through the anus. Colon cancer is also the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the U. Healthcare professionals recommend attending regular screenings for colon cancer from the age of 50 years.

Colorectal cancer , which describes co-occurring colon cancer and rectal cancer, is also common. Rectal cancer originates in the rectum, which is the final several inches of the large intestine, closest to the anus.

In this article, we look at how to recognize and treat colon cancer, why it develops, and how to prevent it. Colon cancer often causes no symptoms in the earliest stages. However, symptoms may become more noticeable as it progresses. These signs and symptoms may include :.

If the cancer spreads to a new location in the body, such as the liver, it can cause additional symptoms in the new area. There are different ways of assigning a stage to cancer. The stages indicate how far a cancer has spread and the size of any tumors. Treatment will depend on the type and stage of the colon cancer.

A doctor will also take the age, overall health status, and other characteristics of the individual into consideration when deciding on the best treatment option. There is no single treatment for any cancer. The most common options for colon cancer are surgery, chemotherapy , and radiation therapy. The aim of treatment will be to remove the cancer, prevent its spread, and reduce any uncomfortable symptoms.

Surgery to remove part or all of the colon is called a colectomy. During this procedure, a surgeon will remove the part of the colon that contains the cancer, as well as some of the surrounding area. For example, they will usually remove nearby lymph nodes to reduce the risk of spreading. The surgeon will then either reattach the healthy portion of the colon or create a stoma, depending on the extent of the colectomy. A stoma is a surgical opening in the wall of the abdomen. Through this opening, waste passes into a bag, which removes the need for the lower part of the colon.

This is called a colostomy. Here, learn more about endoscopy. During chemotherapy, a cancer care team will administer medications that interfere with the cell division process.

They achieve this by disrupting proteins or DNA to damage and kill cancer cells. These treatments target any rapidly dividing cells, including healthy ones. These can usually recover from any chemotherapy induced damage, but cancer cells cannot. A cancer specialist, or oncologist, will usually recommend chemotherapy to treat colon cancer if it spreads.

The medicines travel through the whole body, and the treatment will take place in cycles, so the body has time to heal between doses. Combination therapies often use multiple types of chemotherapy or combine chemotherapy with other treatments. Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by focusing high energy gamma rays on them. A cancer care team may use external radiation therapy, which expels these rays from a machine outside of the body. With internal radiation, a doctor will implant radioactive materials near the site of the cancer in the form of a seed.

Some metals, such as radium, emit gamma rays. The radiation may also come from high energy X-rays. A doctor may request radiation therapy as a standalone treatment to shrink a tumor or to destroy cancer cells. It can also be effective alongside other cancer treatments. For colon cancer, cancer care teams tend not to administer radiation treatments until the later stages. They may use them if early stage rectal cancer has penetrated the wall of the rectum or traveled to nearby lymph nodes.

A physician will carry out a complete physical examination and ask about personal and family medical histories. They may also use the following diagnostic techniques to identify and stage cancer:. A doctor will insert a long, flexible tube with a camera on one end into the rectum to inspect the inside of the colon. The colon will also require cleansing with strong laxatives in a process known as bowel prep. If the doctor finds polyps in the colon, a surgeon will remove the polyps and refer them for biopsy.

In a biopsy, a pathologist examines the polyps under a microscope to look for cancerous or precancerous cells. A similar procedure, called a flexible sigmoidoscopy, allows a doctor to examine a smaller portion of the colorectal area. This method involves less preparation. Also, a full colonoscopy may not be necessary if a sigmoidoscopy does not reveal polyps, or if they are located within a small area. This X-ray procedure uses a liquid called barium to provide clearer images of the colon than a standard X-ray.

A person must fast for several hours before undergoing a barium X-ray. A doctor will inject a liquid solution containing the element barium into the colon through the rectum. They follow this with a brief pumping of air to smooth over the barium layer to provide the most accurate results. A radiologist will then conduct the X-ray of the colon and rectum. The barium appears white on the X-ray, and any tumors and polyps will appear as dark outlines.

If a biopsy suggests the presence of colon cancer, the doctor may order a chest X-ray, an ultrasound , or a CT scan of the lungs, liver, and abdomen to assess the spread of the cancer.

Following diagnosis, a doctor will determine the stage of the cancer based on the size and extent of the tumor, as well as the spread to nearby lymph nodes and distant organs. People should also consider limiting their alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Symptoms may not appear until the cancer has progressed. For this reason, the American College of Physicians recommend screening for people aged 50—75 years, including:.

Consult a doctor for recommendations. Usually, cells follow an orderly process of growth, division, and death. However, cancer develops when cells grow and divide uncontrollably, and when they do not die at the normal point in their life cycle. Most cases of colon cancer originate from noncancerous tumors called adenomatous polyps. These form on the inner walls of the large intestine. Cancerous cells may spread from malignant tumors to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.

These cancer cells can grow and invade healthy tissue nearby and throughout the body in a process called metastasis. The result is a more serious, less treatable condition. The most common types of polyps are:. Some of these polyps may grow into malignant colon cancer if a surgeon does not remove them during the early stages of treatment.

A person might inherit a genetic predisposition toward colon cancer from close relatives, especially if a family member received a diagnosis before the age of 60 years old. It is possible to have these genetic feature without developing cancer. This is because the cancer will not develop unless an environmental factor triggers it. Age is a significant risk factor for colon cancer.

However, it is becoming more common in people under Colon cancer is more likely to affect people with inactive lifestyles, those with obesity , and individuals who use tobacco. As the colon is part of the digestive system, diet and nutrition play central roles in its development. Low fiber diets can contribute. Also, according to one review , people who consume excessive amounts of the following have an increased risk:.

Early detection and treatment are the most effective ways to improve the outlook for a person with colon cancer. In stage 4 colon cancer and rectal cancer , the liver is the most common site of metastasis. Colorectal cancer cells may also spread to the lungs, bones, brain, or spinal cord. Metastatic, or stage 4, breast cancer in the lungs is when breast cancer cells are growing in the lungs. In this article, we look at what happens when…. In the early stages of breast cancer, it may not spread at all.

It is difficult to know how fast invasive breast cancer can spread in 1 year, as it…. Metastatic breast cancer refers to breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Here, learn about treatment options and what to expect. Here, learn about the different types of lung cancer and what they look like, what their symptoms are, and what tests and treatments are available. Immunotherapy is an emerging treatment option for cancer.

It changes the way the immune system interacts with cancer cells and may help treat lung…. Everything you need to know about colon cancer.

Symptoms Stages Treatment options Diagnosis Prevention Causes Outlook Colon cancer develops when tumorous growths develop in the large intestine. Share on Pinterest Colon cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in the U. Treatment options.

Secondary breast cancer symptoms

This video discusses the importance of knowing the signs and symptoms of gynecologic cancer. There is no way to know for sure if you will get a gynecologic cancer. If you have vaginal bleeding that is unusual for you, talk to a doctor right away. Any vaginal bleeding after menopause needs to be reported to your doctor. You should also see a doctor if you have any other warning signs that last for two weeks or longer and are not normal for you. Symptoms may be caused by something other than cancer, but the only way to know is to see a doctor.

Fatigue is very common in patients with blood cancers. Cancer-related fatigue CRF is characterized by excessive and persistent exhaustion that interferes with daily activity and function. CRF often begins before cancer is diagnosed, worsens during the course of treatment and may persist for months—even years—after treatment ends. Some people may also describe muscle weakness or difficulty concentrating. Many patients with blood cancers find CRF more distressing and disabling than other disease-related or treatment-related symptoms such as pain, depression or nausea. It is important for patients to talk with their doctors, nurses and other members of their healthcare team if they experience signs of fatigue before, during, or after treatment. Treatment, along with lifestyle changes, can make an important difference and help improve energy level.

cancer signs and symptoms pdf

Cancer can cause signs and symptoms in your body. You can look out for these. Sometimes these signs and symptoms are caused by other illnesses. But it.

Prostate cancer symptoms

Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Future Outlook. Hepatocellular carcinoma HCC is often diagnosed after the tumor manifests clinical signs and symptoms. Early diagnosis is usually performed thanks to HCC screening programs for patients affected by liver cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatopathies using ultrasound and serum alfa-fetoprotien. In most HCC cases, clinical signs and symptoms of this tumor may occur several months after development, when therapy can not be curative, given the advanced tumor stage and underlying liver disease, which preclude curative options, such as ablation, resection, or liver transplantation. Clinical features of HCC are often similar to those caused by the underlying hepatic disease.

What Are the Symptoms?

Cancer occurs when changes called mutations take place in genes that regulate cell growth. The mutations let the cells divide and multiply in an uncontrolled way.

A Comprehensive Guide to Breast Cancer

The symptoms of prostate cancer may be different for each man, and any one of these symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Because of the proximity of the prostate gland to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer may be accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms, especially in the early stages. Depending on its size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict the urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some early prostate cancer signs include:. The prostate gland produces PSA, a protein that at an elevated level may be a sign of prostate cancer. A high PSA reading also may indicate noncancerous conditions such as inflammation of the prostate prostatitis and enlargement of the prostate benign prostatic hyperplasia. For the test, a clinician takes a sample of your blood and sends it to a lab for analysis.

This page is about signs and symptoms of secondary breast cancer, which is when breast cancer has spread to another part of the body. Looking for information about the signs and symptoms of breast cancer? The main symptoms of secondary breast cancer in the bone include:. Symptoms of secondary breast cancer in the lungs include:.

Signs that breast cancer has spread to the bones

To study the relative importance of different tools a GP can use during the diagnostic process towards cancer detection. Retrospective cohort study with prospective registration of cancer in general practice. Setting and subjects. One hundred and fifty-seven Norwegian general practitioners GPs reported cancer patients. During 10 consecutive days, GPs registered all patient consultations and recorded any presence of seven focal symptoms and three general symptoms, commonly considered as warning signs of cancer WSC. Follow-up was done six to 11 months later. For each patient with new or recurrent cancer, the GP completed a questionnaire with medical-record-based information concerning the diagnostic procedure.

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The risk of developing certain cancers can be reduced by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, eating plenty of vegetables , fruits , and whole grains , vaccination against certain infectious diseases, limiting consumption of processed meat and red meat , and limiting exposure to direct sunlight.

Cancer refers to any one of a large number of diseases characterized by the development of abnormal cells that divide uncontrollably and have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer often has the ability to spread throughout your body. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the world. But survival rates are improving for many types of cancer, thanks to improvements in cancer screening and cancer treatment.

Держитесь. Скоростной карт фирмы Кенсингтон повернул за угол и остановился. Сзади, перпендикулярно туннелю, начинался коридор, едва освещаемый красными лампочками, вмонтированными в пол. - Пойдемте, - позвал Бринкерхофф, помогая Сьюзан вылезти.

Это не принесет тебе радости. У нас много денег - какая разница, кто из нас их получает. Но это была чужая епархия.

Он в недоумении посмотрел на двухцветного. - Ты сказал - в два ночи. Панк кивнул и расхохотался.

Самым главным для него была моральная чистота. Именно по этой причине увольнение из АН Б и последующая депортация стали для него таким шоком. Танкадо, как и остальные сотрудники шифровалки, работал над проектом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, будучи уверенным, что в случае успеха эта машина будет использоваться для расшифровки электронной почты только с санкции министерства юстиции. Использование ТРАНСТЕКСТА Агентством национальной безопасности должно было регулироваться примерно так же, как в случае ФБР, которому для установки подслушивающих устройств необходимо судебное постановление.

Северная Дакота - это Грег Хейл. Сьюзан едва ли не физически ощутила повисшее молчание. Оно показалось ей нескончаемо долгим. Наконец Стратмор заговорил. В его голосе слышалось скорее недоумение, чем шок: - Что ты имеешь в виду.

Everything you need to know about colon cancer


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