File Name: sources of primary and secondary data .zip
Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on February 26, Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. A primary source gives you direct access to the subject of your research. Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. Examples include journal articles, reviews, and academic books. A secondary source describes, interprets, or synthesizes primary sources.
Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but good research uses both primary and secondary sources. Table of contents What is a primary source? What is a secondary source?
Primary and secondary source examples How to tell if a source is primary or secondary Primary vs secondary sources: which is better? Frequently asked questions about primary and secondary sources. A primary source is anything that gives you direct evidence about the people, events, or phenomena that you are researching.
Primary sources will usually be the main objects of your analysis. If you are researching the past, you cannot directly access it yourself, so you need primary sources that were produced at the time by participants or witnesses e. If you are researching something current, your primary sources can either be qualitative or quantitative data that you collect yourself e.
A secondary source is anything that describes, interprets, evaluates, or analyzes information from primary sources. Common examples include:. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing. See editing example. A secondary source can become a primary source depending on your research question. If the person, context, or technique that produced the source is the main focus of your research, it becomes a primary source.
If you are researching the causes of World War II, a recent documentary about the war is a secondary source. But if you are researching the filmmaking techniques used in historical documentaries, the documentary is a primary source. If your paper is about the novels of Toni Morrison, a magazine review of one of her novels is a secondary source.
But if your aim is to analyze media coverage of economic issues, the newspaper article is a primary source. To determine if something can be used as a primary or secondary source in your research, there are some simple questions you can ask yourself:. Most research uses both primary and secondary sources.
They complement each other to help you build a convincing argument. Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but secondary sources show how your work relates to existing research.
Secondary sources are good for gaining a full overview of your topic and understanding how other researchers have approached it. They often synthesize a large number of primary sources that would be difficult and time-consuming to gather by yourself. They allow you to:. When you conduct a literature review , you can consult secondary sources to gain a thorough overview of your topic.
If you want to mention a paper or study that you find cited in a secondary source, seek out the original source and cite it directly. Remember that all primary and secondary sources must be correctly cited to avoid plagiarism. Common examples of primary sources include interview transcripts , photographs, novels, paintings, films, historical documents, and official statistics.
Anything you directly analyze or use as first-hand evidence can be a primary source, including qualitative or quantitative data that you collected yourself. Common examples of secondary sources include academic books, journal articles , reviews, essays , and textbooks. Anything that summarizes, evaluates or interprets primary sources can be a secondary source.
Some types of source are nearly always primary: works of art and literature, raw statistical data, official documents and records, and personal communications e. If you use one of these in your research, it is probably a primary source. Always make sure to properly cite your sources to avoid plagiarism. A fictional movie is usually a primary source. A documentary can be either primary or secondary depending on the context. If you are directly analyzing some aspect of the movie itself — for example, the cinematography, narrative techniques, or social context — the movie is a primary source.
If you use the movie for background information or analysis about your topic — for example, to learn about a historical event or a scientific discovery — the movie is a secondary source. Articles in newspapers and magazines can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your research. In historical studies, old articles are used as primary sources that give direct evidence about the time period.
In social and communication studies, articles are used as primary sources to analyze language and social relations for example, by conducting content analysis or discourse analysis. If you are not analyzing the article itself, but only using it for background information or facts about your topic, then the article is a secondary source. Thanks for reading! Hope you found this article helpful.
Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Citing sources Primary and secondary sources. Primary and secondary sources Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk.
When you do research, you have to gather information and evidence from a variety of sources. What can proofreading do for your paper? Documentaries If you are researching the causes of World War II, a recent documentary about the war is a secondary source. Reviews and essays If your paper is about the novels of Toni Morrison, a magazine review of one of her novels is a secondary source. What are some examples of primary sources? What are some examples of secondary sources?
How can you tell if a source is primary or secondary? Does the source provide original information primary , or does it summarize information from other sources secondary? Are you directly analyzing the source itself primary , or only using it for background information secondary? Is a movie a primary or secondary source? Is a newspaper article a primary or secondary source? Is this article helpful?
Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators. Other students also liked. How to avoid plagiarism When you use words, ideas, or information from a source, you need to properly credit the author. Follow these steps to avoid plagiarism. Each citation style has different rules for in-text citation. How to quote in academic writing When you quote a source, you have to intoduce the quote, enclose the quote in quotation marks, and correctly cite the original author s.
Still have questions? Please click the checkbox on the left to verify that you are a not a bot. What is your plagiarism score? Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. Letters and diaries Photographs and video footage Official documents and records Physical objects. Novels and poems Paintings and art installations Films and performances. Interview transcripts Recordings of speeches Newspapers and magazines Social media posts.
Primary sources of data collection have their advantages such as addressing specific research problems and applications in data management and storage. On the other hand, secondary data gathering has also a range of benefits, best practices, and important meaning in the marketing and data world. For each type of business to be successful, it is absolutely crucial to have reliable information for the market and customer characteristics. This is where intensive research methods and data collection tools come to make it possible. Primary data is information collected directly from first-hand experience. This is the information that you gather for the purpose of a particular research project.
In a time when data is becoming easily accessible to researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing secondary data for research is becoming more prevalent, same as its questionable authenticity when compared with primary data. These 2 types of data, when considered for research is a double-edged sword because it can equally make a research project as well as it can mar it. In a nutshell, primary data and secondary data both have their advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, when carrying out research, it is left for the researcher to weigh these factors and choose the better one. It is therefore important for one to study the similarities and differences between these data types so as to make proper decisions when choosing a better data type for research work.
Data collection, primary vs. secondary, explains the ad- vantages and disadvantages of questions or to point the researcher to other sources of information.
Metrics details. The data from individual observational studies included in meta-analyses of drug effects are collected either from ad hoc methods i. The use of secondary sources may be prone to measurement bias and confounding due to over-the-counter and out-of-pocket drug consumption, or non-adherence to treatment. In fact, it has been noted that failing to consider the origin of the data as a potential cause of heterogeneity may change the conclusions of a meta-analysis.
Aside from consulting the primary origin or source, data can also be collected through a third party, a process common with secondary data. It takes advantage of the data collected from previous research, and uses it to carry out new research. Secondary data is one of the two main types of data, where the second type is the primary data. These 2 data types are very useful in research and statistics, but for the sake of this article, we will be restricting our scope to secondary data. We will study secondary data, its examples, sources and methods of analysis. Secondary data is the data that has already been collected through primary sources and made readily available for researchers to use for their own research. It is a type of data that has already been collected in the past.
Primary sources provide a first-hand account of an event or time period and are considered to be authoritative. They represent original thinking, reports on discoveries or events, or they can share new information. Often these sources are created at the time the events occurred but they can also include sources that are created later. They are usually the first formal appearance of original research. Secondary sources involve analysis, synthesis, interpretation, or evaluation of primary sources. They often attempt to describe or explain primary sources. Scholarly journals, although generally considered to be secondary sources, often contain articles on very specific subjects and may be the primary source of information on new developments.
2)-PUBLIC DOCUMENTS OR RECORDS- Public documents play a vital role in secondary source of data collection. Various types of unpublished and published data are collected by government on non government agencies. These public documents/records are.. A)-Publications of Central, state, local government.
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Published on June 20, by Raimo Streefkerk. Revised on February 26, Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence.
Беккера поразила ее реакция. - Сьюзан, не знал, что ты… - Это из сатир Ювенала! - воскликнула. - Кто будет охранять охранников.
Что это? - вскрикнула Сьюзан между сигналами. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся! - сказал Стратмор. В его голосе слышалось беспокойство. - Быть может, Хейл был прав, говоря, что система резервного питания подает недостаточное количество фреона.
Одним быстрым движением она выпрямилась, выпустила струю прямо в лицо Беккеру, после чего схватила сумку и побежала к двери. Когда она оглянулась, Дэвид Беккер лежал на полу, прижимая ладони к лицу и корчась от нестерпимого жжения в глазах. ГЛАВА 71 Токуген Нуматака закурил уже четвертую сигару и принялся мерить шагами кабинет, потом схватил телефонную трубку и позвонил на коммутатор.
Беккеру это показалось дурным предзнаменованием. Он подбежал к кассе. - El vuelo a los Estados Unidos. Стоявшая за стойкой симпатичная андалузка посмотрела на него и ответила с извиняющейся улыбкой: - Acaba de salir.
Директор! - взорвался Джабба. - Когда эти стены рухнут, вся планета получит высший уровень допуска к нашим секретам. Высший уровень. К отчетам о секретных операциях.
Беккер кивнул: - Самым решительным образом. Консульство этого так не оставит. - Надеюсь. - Месье Клушар.
Этот алгоритм создал один самых блестящих умов в криптографии.
Если Танкадо говорит, что алгоритм не поддается взлому, значит, так оно и. - Но ведь для обычных пользователей они все не поддаются взлому. - Верно… - Стратмор задумался.
По другой стороне улицы, оставаясь невидимым, шел человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе. ГЛАВА 27 Тени в зале шифровалки начали удлиняться и терять четкость. Автоматическое освещение постепенно становилось ярче. Сьюзан по-прежнему молча сидела за компьютером, ожидая вестей от Следопыта.
Да, мэм. - Я хочу услышать только да или. Возможно ли, что проблема шифровалки каким-то образом связана с вирусом. - Мидж… я уже говорил… - Да или нет: мог в ТРАНСТЕКСТ проникнуть вирус. Джабба шумно вздохнул.
Фонтейн ничего не ответил, погруженный в глубокое раздумье. Слова Сьюзан Флетчер о том, что ключ находится в Испании, показались ему обнадеживающими. Он бросил быстрый взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему сидела на стуле, обхватив голову руками и целиком уйдя в .
Тогда он посадил его на заднее сиденье своего мотоцикла, чтобы отвезти в гостиницу, где тот остановился. Но этот канадец не знал, что ему надо держаться изо всех сил, поэтому они и трех метров не проехали, как он грохнулся об асфальт, разбил себе голову и сломал запястье. - Что? - Сьюзан не верила своим ушам.
- В голосе звонившего по-прежнему чувствовалась нерешительность. - Ну, тогда… надеюсь, хлопот не. - Отлично.
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