File Name: respiration in plants and animals .zip
So O2 requirement will be met by photosynthesis where O2 will be directly released into cells 3. Respiration in Plants Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Notes All living organisms require a continuous supply of energy for their survival. Org to score more marks in your examination.
Respiratory system , the system in living organisms that takes up oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide in order to satisfy energy requirements. In the living organism, energy is liberated, along with carbon dioxide, through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon. The term respiration denotes the exchange of the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the organism and the medium in which it lives and between the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them.
With the exception of energy used by animal life in the deep ocean, all energy used by animals is ultimately derived from the energy of sunlight. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in conjunction with the energy of sunlight is used by plants to synthesize sugars and other components. Animals consume plants or other organic material to obtain chemical compounds , which are then oxidized to sustain vital processes. This article considers the gaseous components of air and water, the natural respiratory habitats of animals, and the basic types of respiratory structures that facilitate gas exchange in these environments.
Although the acquisition of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide are essential requirements for all animals, the rate and amount of gaseous exchange vary according to the kind of animal and its state of activity. In the Table the oxygen consumption of various animals is expressed in terms of millilitres of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per hour, reflecting the gas demands of different species at rest and in motion.
A change in the chemical composition of the body fluids elicits a response from the central nervous system , which then excites or depresses the machinery of external respiration. The range of respiratory problems faced by aquatic and terrestrial animals can be seen from the varying composition and physical characteristics of water and air.
Air contains about 20 times the amount of oxygen found in air-saturated water. In order to extract an equivalent amount of oxygen as an air breather, an aquatic animal may find it necessary to pass across the respiratory surfaces a relatively larger volume of the external medium.
Moreover, the diffusion rate of oxygen is much lower in water than in air. The problem is further compounded by the higher density 1, times air and viscosity times air of water, which impose on the machinery of aquatic respiration a much greater work load.
Thus, fish may expend about 20 percent of their total oxygen consumption in running the respiratory pump, as compared with about 1 to 2 percent in mammals, including humans. The carbon dioxide content of most natural waters is low compared with air, often almost nil.
In contrast to oxygen, carbon dioxide is extremely soluble in water and diffuses rapidly. Most of the carbon dioxide entering water combines either with the water to form carbonic acid or with other substances to form carbonates or bicarbonates. This buffering capacity maintains a low level of free carbon dioxide and facilitates the maintenance of a favourable diffusion gradient for carbon dioxide exchange by water breathers.
In general, oxygen exchange, which is strongly dependent on the oxygen content of the water, is more critically limiting for aquatic forms than is the exchange of carbon dioxide.
Temperature exerts a profound effect on the solubility of gases in water. At the same time, a rise in body temperature produces an increase in oxygen consumption among animals that do not closely regulate their body temperatures so-called cold-blooded animals. A fish experiencing both rising water and body temperatures is under a double handicap: more water must be pumped across its gill surfaces to extract the same amount of oxygen as was needed at the lower temperature; and the increased metabolism requires greater quantities of oxygen.
The amount of oxygen available in natural waters is also limited by the amount of dissolved salts. This factor is a determinant of oxygen availability in transitional zones between sea and fresh water. Bodies of water may have oxygen-poor zones. Such zones are especially evident in swamps and at the lower levels of deep lakes. Many animals are excluded from such zones; others have become remarkably adapted to living in them. It is composed of a mixture of gases held in an envelope around the globe by gravitational attraction.
The atmosphere exerts a pressure proportional to the weight of a column of air above the surface of the Earth extending to the limit of the atmosphere: atmospheric pressure at sea level is on average sufficient to support a column of mercury millimetres in height abbreviated as mm Hg—the latter being the chemical symbol for mercury. Dry air is composed chiefly of nitrogen and inert gases These percentages are relatively constant to about At sea level and a barometric pressure of millimetres of mercury, the partial pressure of nitrogen is The existence of water vapour in a gas mixture reduces the partial pressures of the other component gases but does not alter the total pressure of the mixture.
To calculate the partial pressures of the respiratory gases, this value must be subtracted from the atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressures fall at higher altitudes, but the composition of the atmosphere remains unchanged. At 7, metres 25, feet the atmospheric pressure is millimetres of mercury and the partial pressure of oxygen is about 59 millimetres of mercury. Oxygen continues to constitute only The rarefaction of the air at high altitudes not only limits the availability of oxygen for the air breather, it also limits its availability for aquatic forms, since the amount of dissolved gas in water decreases in parallel with the decline in atmospheric pressure.
The variations in the characteristics of air and water suggest the many problems with which the respiratory systems of animals must cope in procuring enough oxygen to sustain life. Respiratory system Article Media Additional Info.
Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Robert A. Coauthor of Normal and Abnormal Lung Function. See Article History. Alternative Titles: airway, respiratory tract.
Different methods of respiration in animals. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Oxygen consumption of various animals and its variation with rest and activity animal weight grams oxygen consumption millilitres per kilogram of weight per hour Source: A. Load Next Page.
It may be plausibly argued that the biological study of respiration dates from those prehistoric times when man first apprehended the existence in the human race, and also in the animals he hunted or domesticated, of a link between living and breathing. There are frequent allusions to this link in the most ancient literature, for example in the books of our bible and the oldest Greek writings. Singer remarks on the use in the Iliad of the word psyche in the sense of breath, and points out that in several languages the word for breath eventually came to mean life. So from breath the word psyche came to mean life , then the principle of life, and then the soul or again the mind. It is interesting to observe that in other ancient languages, as for instance Hebrew and Latin, the word for soul or life has gone through exactly the same history, being gradually changed from its original meaning of breath. Unable to display preview.
Many commonalities between chloroplasts and mitochondria exist, thereby suggesting a common origin via a bacterial ancestor capable of enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the dual regulatory targeting of mitochondrial and chloroplast gene expression by mitochondrial transcription termination factor MTERF proteins to promote optimal energy production and oxygen consumption further advances these evolutionary contentions. Interestingly, both types of organelles have been identified in selected animal cells, most notably specialized digestive cells lining the gut of several species of Sacoglossan sea slugs. Termed kleptoplasty or kleptoplastic endosymbiosis, functional chloroplasts from algal food sources are internalized and stored within digestive cells to provide the host with dual energy sources derived from mitochondrial and photosynthetic processes. Recently, the observation of internalized algae within embryonic tissues of the spotted salamander strongly suggest that developmental processes within a vertebrate organism may require photosynthetic endosymbiosis as an internal regulator.
Skip to content Your Produce, Our Responsibility. Biological oxidation : Oxidation in a series of reaction inside a cell. Mitochondria are found in almost all plants and animal cells.
Tuesday, September 12, Jose Chen Lopez. The process of respiration in plants involves using the sugars produced during photosynthesis plus oxygen to produce energy for plant growth. In many ways, respiration is the opposite of photosynthesis. In the natural environment, plants produce their own food to survive.
Respiratory system , the system in living organisms that takes up oxygen and discharges carbon dioxide in order to satisfy energy requirements. In the living organism, energy is liberated, along with carbon dioxide, through the oxidation of molecules containing carbon. The term respiration denotes the exchange of the respiratory gases oxygen and carbon dioxide between the organism and the medium in which it lives and between the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them. With the exception of energy used by animal life in the deep ocean, all energy used by animals is ultimately derived from the energy of sunlight. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in conjunction with the energy of sunlight is used by plants to synthesize sugars and other components.
Откуда-то сверху падали пульсирующие стробоскопические вспышки света, придававшие всему этому сходство со старым немым кино. У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров. Беккер заткнул уши и оглядел толпу. Куда бы ни падал его взгляд, всюду мелькали красно-бело-синие прически. Тела танцующих слились так плотно, что он не мог рассмотреть, во что они одеты. Британского флага нигде не было .
- Здравствуйте, шеф. - Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость. - Не в этом дело… - Да в этом. - Он все еще посмеивался.
- Эдди! - крикнул .
Нужно ввести ключ, останавливающий червя. Все очень все. Мы признаем, что у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ, а Танкадо вручает нам шифр-убийцу. Мы вводим ключ и спасаем банк данных.
Беккер хотел подняться на ноги, но у него не было на это сил. Ослепленные глаза горели огнем. Он хотел крикнуть, но в легких не было воздуха, с губ срывалось лишь невнятное мычание. - Нет! - закашлявшись, исторгнул он из груди. Но звук так и не сорвался с его губ.
Беккер засмеялся. И увидел, что никто даже не улыбнулся, когда текст был наконец расшифрован. Беккер так и не узнал, какие страшные секреты он помог раскрыть, ни одна вещь не вызывала у него никаких сомнений. АНБ очень серьезно относилось к дешифровке. Полученный чек превышал его месячное университетское жалованье.
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