File Name: causes and effects of animal and plant essay .zip
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In fact air pollution is the occurrence or addition of foreign particles, gases and other pollutants into the air which have an adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation, buildings, etc. Natural air pollutants include a pollen, spores, b marsh gas, c volcanic gases and a synthesis of harmful chemicals by electric storms and solar flares.
Concentration of industries in one area is another major cause of air pollution. Air pollutants are broadly classified into particulate and gaseous.
The particulate substances include solid and liquid particles. The gaseous include substances that are in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure. The air pollutants have adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation, buildings. Aesthetic sense is also influenced by air pollutants. The different air pollutants and their effects are as follows:. It is of two types—settleable and suspended. The settleable dusts have a particle longer than 10 am. The smaller particles are able to remain suspended for long periods in the air.
The important effects of particulate matter are. Smog harms plant life through glazing and necrosis besides reduced availability of light. In human beings and animals it produces respiratory troubles. It is formed by incomplete combustion of carbon fuels in various industries, motor vehicles, hearths, kitchens, etc. Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin of blood and impairs its oxygen carrying capacity.
At higher concentration, carbon monoxide proves lethal. They occur mainly in the form of sulphur dioxide. It is produced in large quantity during smelting of metallic ores and burning of petroleum and coal in industries, thermal plants, home and motor vehicles. In the air, SO 2 combines with water to form sulphurous acid H 2 SO 3 which is the cause of acid rain. It causes chlorosis and necrosis of vegetation.
Sulphur dioxide, above 1 ppm, affects human beings. It causes irritation to eyes and injury to respiratory tract. It results in discolouration and deterioration of buildings, sculptures, painted surfaces, fabrics, paper, leather, etc. They are produced naturally through biological and non-biological activities from nitrates, nitrites, electric storms, high energy radiations and solar flares. Human activity forms nitrogen oxides in combustion process of industries, automobiles, incinerators and nitrogen fertilizers.
Nitrogen oxides act on unsaturated hydrocarbons to form peroxy-acyl nitrates or PAN. It gives rise to photochemical smog.
They cause eye irritation, respiratory troubles, blood congestion and dilation of arteries. Due to excessive combustion activity, the content of C0 2 has been steadily rising. As carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere it absorbs more and more of the reflected infrared radiation. This could cause an increase in temperature referred to as the green house effect.
Melting polar ice caps and glaciers could cause sea levels to rise, flooding most of the major population centres and fertile lands. Phosgene COCl 2 is a poisonous and suffocating volatile liquid which is employed in dye industry and synthesis of organic compounds.
They are widely used as disinfectants. Other sources are jet plane emissions which contain chlorofluorocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons are also used in refrigeration and formation of certain types of solid plastic foams.
Burning of plastics produces polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs. The latter are persistent and pass into the food chain. Chlorofluorocarbons and carbon tetrachloride react with ozone layers of stratosphere and hence deplete the same. Hydrocarbons have carcinogen properties. Some of these are also harmful to plants because they cause senescence and abscission. In the presence of sunlight, hydrocarbons react with nitrogen oxides to produce ozone, peroxy-acyl nitrates, aldehydes and other compounds.
Peroxy-acyl nitrates are a major constituent of air pollution. They cause eye irritation and respiratory diseases. They are one of the major sources of air pollution. Excess of microbes in the atmosphere directly damage the vegetation, food articles and causes diseases in plants, animals and human beings.
Excess of pollen causes allergic reactions in several human beings. The common reactions are also collectively called hay-fever. The important allergic pollen belong to Amaranthus spinosus, Chenopodium album, Cynodon dactylon, Ricinus communis, Sorghum vulgare, Prosopis chilensis etc. Use of tall chimneys shall reduce the air pollution in the surroundings and compulsory use of filters and electrostatic precipitators in the chimneys.
Removal of poisonous gases by passing the fumes through water tower scrubber or spray collector. Development and employment of non-combustive sources of energy, e.
Attempt should be made to develop pollution free fuels for automobiles, e. Automobiles should be fitted with exhaust emission controls. Industrial plants and refineries should be fitted with equipment for removal and recycling of wastes. Growing plants capable of fixing carbon monoxide, e. Growing plants capable of metabolising nitrogen oxides and other gaseous pollutants, e. Air Pollution. You must be logged in to post a comment. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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Jump to navigation. British poet W. This widespread problem of water pollution is jeopardizing our health. Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined. Without action, the challenges will only increase by , when global demand for freshwater is expected to be one-third greater than it is now. Sip a glass of cool, clear water as you read this, and you may think water pollution is a problem. But while most Americans have access to safe drinking water , potentially harmful contaminants—from arsenic to copper to lead—have been found in the tap water of every single state in the nation.
News, analysis, experiments, videos, games, and educational paths on the issues of energy and the environment for complete and topical information. Deforestation causes can either be direct or indirect. Among direct causes are:. The main causes of deforestation can actually be lead back especially to:. Cultivations and livestock farming We should consider, infact, that with regards to the substitution of forest areas with cultivations and livestock farms, the impact is much higher because after the extraction of the most precious trees which are destined for timber commercialization, forests are set on fire causing a great impact on local animals and plants. The most disastrous year for the Amazon forest has been when over 50, fires where registered by aerial views or satellite images. Timber extraction Centuries-old trees are cut down to make timber or cellulose for the furniture or paper industry.
In fact air pollution is the occurrence or addition of foreign particles, gases and other pollutants into the air which have an adverse effect on human beings, animals, vegetation, buildings, etc.
Jump to main content. Most plants and animals live in areas with very specific climate conditions, such as temperature and rainfall patterns, that enable them to thrive. Any change in the climate of an area can affect the plants and animals living there, as well as the makeup of the entire ecosystem. Some species are already responding to a warmer climate by moving to cooler locations. For example, some North American animals and plants are moving farther north or to higher elevations to find suitable places to live.
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