File Name: mountain weather research and forecasting .zip
Chow, F. Snyder eds. DOI:
The topics in this book are expanded from those presented at the Mountain Weather Workshop, which took place in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, August , The inspiration for the workshop came from the American Meteorological Society AMS Mountain Meteorology Committee and was designed to bridge the gap between the research and forecasting communities by providing a forum for extended discussion and joint education. For academic researchers, this book provides some insight into issues important to the forecasting community. For the forecasting community, this book provides training on fundamentals of atmospheric processes over mountainous regions, which are notoriously difficult to predict. The book also helps to provide a better understanding of current research and forecast challenges, including the latest contributions and advancements to the field. The focus then shifts to other phenomena specific to mountain regions: Alpine foehn, boundary layer and air quality issues, orographic precipitation processes, and microphysics parameterizations.
Mountainous regions occupy a significant fraction of the Earth's continents and are characterized by specific meteorological phenomena operating on a wide range of scales. Being a home to large human populations, the impact of mountains on weather and hydrology has significant practical consequences. Mountains modulate the climate and create micro-climates, induce different types of thermally and dynamically driven circulations, generate atmospheric waves of various scales known as mountain waves , and affect the boundary layer characteristics and the dispersion of pollutants. At the local scale, strong downslope winds linked with mountain waves such as the Foehn and Bora can cause severe damage. Mountain wave breaking in the high atmosphere is a source of Clear Air Turbulence, and lee wave rotors are a major near-surface aviation hazard. Mountains also act to block strongly stratified air layers, leading to the formation of valley cold air-pools with implications for road safety, pollution, crop damage, etc.
For impact studies on the incidental release of pollutants in industrial settings, it is critical to understand and be able to predict the meteorological conditions that govern the dispersion of these pollutants. In this context, stable boundary layers SBLs in complex terrain constitute a challenging case, because under these conditions there is not a single dominant term in the equations of motion that ultimately establishes the flow. Instead, the actual flow field is the result of interactions of many processes on different scales Mahrt ; Steeneveld Another challenge for model simulations in complex terrain is the limited representation of orographic features. At the same time, stable conditions form the most limiting conditions for dispersion, because vertical mixing is suppressed. Cadarache is situated in southeastern France, in an area of moderately complex terrain where SBLs develop frequently. The campaign resulted in 23 successful intensive observational periods IOPs and a unique dataset that includes flux measurements and vertical profiles acquired with radiosoundings, sodar, and a tethered balloon.
The dynamic nature in which the atmosphere and land interact can render the spatial distribution of precipitation highly variable. This is particularly the case in mountain environments where the topography is steep and the elevational variability is large. A large part of this error is due to an inadequate understanding of the spatial distribution of mountain precipitation. Snow, unlike rain, remains roughly in place post snowfall, and can be measured both from the ground and now from the air.
Meteorological Monographs. AMS Meteorological Monographs are thematic collections of peer-reviewed, original papers, survey articles, and other materials in meteorology and closely related fields that do not otherwise appear in AMS Journals.. Starting with Vol. Editors view affiliations Fotini K. Chow; Stephan F.
This monograph is the result of a multi-year effort that began with the organization of a workshop designed to bring researchers and forecasters together to discuss current progress and challenges in mountain weather. The chapters in this monograph represent the topics from this workshop, the Mountain Weather Workshop, which took place in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, August , This monograph will provide readers with a broad understanding of the fundamental principles driving flow over complex terrain and provide historical context for recent developments and future direction for researchers and forecasters. For academic researchers, the monograph will provide some insight into issues important to the forecasting community. For the forecasting community, we hope the monograph will provide training on fundamentals of flows specific to mountainous regions which are notoriously difficult to predict, understanding of current research challenges, and an opportunity to learn about the latest contributions and advancements to the field.
After the fresh snow, the forest is quiet, save for the soft crunch of snowshoes. High in the rugged terrain of Olympic National Park, two hikers find the long metal snout of a scientific instrument barely poking through five feet of snow from an epic storm. It is no small job to shovel out the instrument, riding on sawhorse legs too short to keep its nose above the surface. Its camera can capture high-resolution video of falling snowflakes and raindrops—but not from beneath a snowdrift. The instrument and its minders are part of a NASA mission to enable satellites to better measure precipitation in all types of terrain.
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