File Name: social and cultural forms of modernity .zip
Modernity , a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period the modern era and the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms , attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of the Renaissance —in the " Age of Reason " of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century " Enlightenment ". Some commentators consider the era of modernity to have ended by , with World War II in , or the s or s; the following era is called postmodernity.
The first characteristic associated with modernism is nihilism, the rejection of all religious and moral principles as the only means of obtaining social progress. The reason that they did so was not necessarily because they did not believe in God, although there was a great majority of them who were atheists, or that they experienced great doubt about the meaninglessness of life. Rather, their rejection of conventional morality was based on its arbitrariness, its conformity and its exertion of control over human feelings. In other words, the rules of conduct were a restrictive and limiting force over the human spirit. The modernists believed that for an individual to feel whole and a contributor to the re-vitalization of the social process, he or she needed to be free of all the encumbering baggage of hundreds of years of hypocrisy The rejection of moral and religious principles was compounded by the repudiation of all systems of beliefs, whether in the arts, politics, sciences or philosophy. Doubt was not necessarily the most significant reason why this questioning took place.
An introductory section offers an overview of recent treatments of religion and globalization and identifies a number of key themes prevalent in academic discussions. The introduction then gives way to a more detailed treatment of globalizing modernity as constituted by transnational networks and border-transcending flows. The next section treats religion and globalizing modernity by engaging a number of scholars who reject the relevance of purportedly exogenous theories of modernity for understanding the Latin American context. The article then concludes by revisiting its key points and outlining their implications for contemporary understandings of religion and globalization. According to Thomas Csordas , p. A far cry from James Beckford's , p.
Cultural Theory and the Problem of Modernity pp Cite as. In earlier chapters I outlined the development of the concept of culture in Marxism and sociology, paying particular attention to the contributions of Gramsci and Weber with their critiques of reductionism and their emphasis on human action and purpose. The discovery of culture as an autonomous realm of human values, action and structure corresponds closely with the emergence of an advanced industrial capitalism with powerful modernising forces that generated a fluid and pluralist social structure, new social classes and fractions of classes, new professions, new industries and services, and populations increasingly concentrated in burgeoning urban centres. And it was during the second half of the nineteenth century that the arts, too, were modernised: art, literature, music as well as philosophy and psychology were transformed through the development of new modes of narrative and concepts of time for example, the stream of consciousness novel ; painting and music broke from the traditional mimetic forms to conceive a fleeting and fluid reality with no apparent centre impressionism in painting, Debussy, Schoenberg, Webern and Berg in music ; while the expressionist theatre of Strindberg and Wedekind abandoned all notions of a stable and unified self. Unable to display preview.
Modernity , the self-definition of a generation about its own technological innovation , governance, and socioeconomics. More specifically, modernity was associated with individual subjectivity, scientific explanation and rationalization, a decline in emphasis on religious worldviews, the emergence of bureaucracy , rapid urbanization , the rise of nation-states, and accelerated financial exchange and communication. There is little consensus as to when modernity began. Histories of Western Europe suggest that a modern era arrived at the end of colonial invasion and global expansion, which date to the 18th and early 19th centuries. In general, modernity was exemplified by the period subsequent to the onset of modern warfare, typified by two world wars and succeeded by postmodernism. Modernity in the West in the first half of the 20th century meant new formats for new thoughts—innovative ways of writing and thinking, new fields of inquiry, the infusion of women into historically male-dominated workforces, the emergence of new art forms e. The rationalization of processes led to schemes such as the intensification of the division of labour , which improved work efficiency and provided work opportunities for semiskilled individuals.
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Definitions and Characteristics of Modernity Since the term "Modern" is used to describe a wide range of periods, any definition of modernity must account for the context in question. Modern can mean all of post-medieval European history, in the context of dividing history into three large epochs: Antiquity, Medieval, and Modern. Likewise, it is often used to describe the Euro-American culture that arises out of the Enlightenment and continues in some way into the present. The term "Modern" is also applied to the period beginning somewhere between and , through the present, and even more specifically to the period. One common use of the term, "Early Modern" is to describe the condition of Western History either since the mid's, or roughly the European discovery of moveable type and the printing press, or the early 's, the period associated with the rise of the Enlightenment project. These periods can be characterized by:.
1 CHANGING SOCIAL DIVISIONS: CLASS, GENDER AND RACE Harriet Bradley. 2 WOMEN AND THE DOMESTIC SPHERE. Helen Crowley.
Drawing on the example of modernization theory in the postwar period, we discuss some common pitfalls in the ways in which culture and processes of cultural change are perceived and understood. We focus on two issues that are of particular relevance to the IPSP: the need to nurture an ethos of solidarity and citizenship; and the need to address risks of cultural exclusions and stigmatization.
- Гамма-лучи против электромагнитной пульсации. Распадающиеся материалы и нераспадающиеся. Есть целые числа, но есть и подсчет в процентах. Это полная каша. - Это где-то здесь, - твердо сказала Сьюзан. - Надо думать. Есть различие, которое мы все время упускаем.
Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум. - Нуматака! - огрызнулся сердитый голос. - Вы обещали мне ключ. Стратмор не остановился. - Мне нужна Цифровая крепость. - настаивал Нуматака. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует! - сказал Стратмор.
Беккер проехал уже половину пути, когда услышал сзади металлический скрежет, прижался к рулю и до отказа открыл дроссель. Раздался приглушенный звук выстрела. Мимо. Он резко свернул влево и запетлял по дороге в надежде сбить преследователя и выиграть время. Все было бесполезно.
Рядом со мной агент Смит. -Хорошо, - сказал Фонтейн.
Мне нужно немедленно ее увидеть. - Но, сеньор, она занята с клиентом. - Это очень важно, - извиняющимся тоном сказал Беккер. Вопрос национальной безопасности.
Если ТРАНСТЕКСТ до сих пор не дал ответа, значит, пароль насчитывает не менее десяти миллиардов знаков. Полнейшее безумие. - Это невозможно! - воскликнула она .
Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского. - Вот что нам надо сделать. - Стратмор начал спокойно излагать свой план. - Мы сотрем всю переписку Хейла с Танкадо, уничтожим записи о том, что я обошел систему фильтров, все диагнозы Чатрукьяна относительно ТРАНСТЕКСТА, все данные о работе компьютера над Цифровой крепостью, одним словом - .
А вместо этого он заразил вирусом главный банк данных Агентства национальной безопасности.
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