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Concave And Convex Mirrors Physics Pdf

concave and convex mirrors physics pdf

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The image in a plane mirror has the same size as the object, is upright, and is the same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front of the mirror. A curved mirror, on the other hand, can form images that may be larger or smaller than the object and may form either in front of the mirror or behind it.

2.3: Spherical Mirrors

A concave mirror has the reflecting surface that caves inwards. Concave mirrors converge light to one prime focus point. Therefore, they are also called converging mirrors. They are used to focus light.

The image formed by a concave mirror varies in size depending on the position of the object with respect to the mirror. The image can be real or virtual, erect or inverted and magnified, diminished or of the same size as that of the object, all depending on the position of the object. Real images can be brought onto a screen and they are always inverted. When we look at ourselves in a flat mirror, we will appear in the same size as we are and will appear to be just as far behind the mirror as we will be actually standing in front of the mirror.

This is because of how reflection takes place. This is concluded as the laws of reflection. The first law of reflection says that the light that hits a mirror would bounce back at the same angle. If the mirror is flat that would cause the image to appear life-size. The type of image created by a flat mirror is called the virtual image as it will appear behind the mirror. Laws of reflection are valid for any type or mirror or surface.

Pole P : It is the midpoint of a mirror. Centre of Curvature C : It is the centre of the sphere of which the mirror forms a part. The Radius of Curvature R : It is the distance between the pole and the centre of the curvature.

It is twice the focal length of the mirror. Principal Axis: An imaginary line that is passing through the pole and the centre of curvature of the spherical mirror. Aperture: It is used to denote the size of the mirror. Focus: It is the point on the principal axis, where the light rays parallel to the principal axis will converge in the case of a concave mirror or appear to diverge from in the case of a convex mirror after reflection from the mirror. Focal Length: The distance between the pole and the focus of the mirror.

Whatever be the position of the object in front of the convex mirror, the images is always smaller than the object, erect, virtual and also formed within the focus. A real image occurs where rays converge, whereas virtual image occurs when rays diverge and only appear to come from a point. The real images cannot be produced by a convex mirror as it diverges the rays. The real image is formed as a result of the actual convergence of the reflected light rays.

It can be received on a screen and it is always inverted. The concave mirror forms an image and that depends on the two parameters: the object distance and the focal length of the mirror. If the object is placed between the pole and the focus of a concave mirror, a magnified and erect virtual is found to be formed.

Concave Mirror. Convex Mirror. What are convex and concave mirrors? If the inner side of the spherical mirror is reflecting, it is called a concave mirror. If the outer side of the spherical mirror is reflecting, it is called a convex mirror. Concave mirrors can form inverted and real images and also virtual and erect images.

Convex mirrors form virtual and erect images. Size can be smaller, larger or of the same size depending on the position of the object. Smaller than the size of the object, always. Depends on the position of the object. Always within the focus, irrespective of the position of the object. Convex Mirror Ray Diagram:. When an object is placed at infinity a virtual image will be formed at the focus point. The image will be highly diminished as compared to the object.

When an object is placed at a finite distance from the mirror, the virtual image will be formed between the pole and focus. The size of the image is smaller as compared to the object. Concave Mirror Ray Diagram:. When an object is at infinity, a real image is formed at the focus point. The size of the image is much smaller as compared to the object. A real image will be formed between the focus and centre of curvature, when the object is placed beyond the centre of curvature.

The size will be small as compared to the object. When an object or thing is set at the centre of curvature, the real image gets formed at the centre of the curvature.

The size of the image is the same as that of the object. The size will be larger as compared to the object. When an object is placed at the focus, the real image will be formed at infinity.

The size of the image is much larger as compared to the object that is placed at the focus. When the object is placed between the pole and focus, a virtual image is formed behind the mirror.

The size is larger as compared to the object. Convex mirror gives a wide rear view. The convex mirror is suitable for convenient shops and big supermarkets and any other corner for a wide observation. They can be used as street light reflectors because they can spread the light over a bigger area.

They are put on the corners of roads so that the drivers can see any vehicles and avoid collisions by taking due measures. The concave mirror is a converging mirror, so it is used for many purposes. It is used in a torch, automobile headlamps, lighthouses etc to reflect the light and make a fine beam. It is used in the aircraft landing at the airports to guide the airplane. It is used in the shaving process where you can get an enlarged and erect image of the face.

It is used in the solar ovens also. It collects a large amount of solar energy and focuses to a point where the vessel containing water or item to be cooked is placed. Concave mirrors are used in satellite dishes, they are also used by dentists and ENT doctors use them to obtain a larger image. Concave mirrors are used in electronic microscope, astronomical telescopes, visual bomb detectors etc. Concave Mirror Convex Mirror What are convex and concave mirrors?

Image Concave mirrors can form inverted and real images and also virtual and erect images. Convex mirrors form virtual and erect images Size Size can be smaller, larger or of the same size depending on the position of the object. Position Depends on the position of the object.

Plane mirror

We only have to look as far as the nearest bathroom to find an example of an image formed by a mirror. Images in flat mirrors are the same size as the object and are located behind the mirror. Like lenses, mirrors can form a variety of images. For example, dental mirrors may produce a magnified image, just as makeup mirrors do. Security mirrors in shops, on the other hand, form images that are smaller than the object. We will use the law of reflection to understand how mirrors form images, and we will find that mirror images are analogous to those formed by lenses.

concave and convex mirrors physics pdf

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A plane mirror is a mirror with a flat planar reflective surface. Therefore, the angle of reflection is the angle between the reflected ray and the normal and a collimated beam of light does not spread out after reflection from a plane mirror, except for diffraction effects. A plane mirror makes an image of objects in front of the mirror; these images appear to be behind the plane in which the mirror lies. A straight line drawn from part of an object to the corresponding part of its image makes a right angle with, and is bisected by, the surface of the plane mirror. The image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual meaning that the light rays do not actually come from the image , upright, and of the same shape and size as the object it is reflecting. A virtual image is a copy of an object formed at the location from which the light rays appear to come. Actually, the image formed in the mirror is a perverted image Perversion , there is a misconception among people about having confused with perverted and laterally-inverted image.

Predating even crude lenses, mirrors are perhaps the oldest optical element utilized by man to harness the power of light. Prehistoric cave dwellers were no doubt mesmerized by their reflections in undisturbed ponds and other bodies of water, but the earliest man-made mirrors were not discovered until Egyptian pyramidal artifacts dating back to around BC were examined. Mirrors made during the Greco-Roman period and the Middle Ages consisted of highly polished metals, such as bronze, tin, or silver, fashioned into slightly convex disks, which served mankind for over a millennium. It was not until the late Twelfth or early Thirteenth Centuries that the use of glass with a metallic backing was developed to produce looking glasses , but refinement of this technique took an additional several hundred years. By the Sixteenth Century, Venetian craftsmen were fabricating handsome mirrors fashioned from a sheet of flat glass coated with a thin layer of mercury-tin amalgam see Figure 1 for a Gothic version.

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Ray Diagrams - Convex Mirrors

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    A concave mirror has the reflecting surface that caves inwards.

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    Lecture Lenses and mirrors. • Spherical lenses: converging, diverging. • Plane mirrors. • Spherical mirrors: concave, convex. The animated ray diagrams.

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