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Correspondence Address: Prof. E-mail: reeves ncsu. Clients receive Internet service by mapping domain names into internet protocol addresses, which are routable. DNS provides a scalable and flexible name resolution service to clients easily and quickly. However, DNS was initially developed without security, and the information is not secured.
Correspondence Address: Prof. E-mail: reeves ncsu. Clients receive Internet service by mapping domain names into internet protocol addresses, which are routable.
DNS provides a scalable and flexible name resolution service to clients easily and quickly. However, DNS was initially developed without security, and the information is not secured.
Although DNS security extensions was released in to protect against vulnerabilities, it is not widely deployed, and DNS continues to suffer from a variety of attacks.
The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive survey of DNS security. In detail, attacks are classified by purpose and methods for defending against these attacks are introduced and assessed. Finally, we conclude with a summary of the current state of DNS security. Results: The main findings of this study is to introduce fundamental vulnerabilities of DNS and classify representative DNS attacks into four categories to efficiently analyze them.
Moreover, we describe and assess mitigation systems to defense these attacks. Conclusion: We conclude that DNS is an integral part of Internet operations but is still exposed to various attacks due to its vulnerabilities, low deployment of available mitigation techniques, and limitations of such techniques. Introduction Over the past 30 years, we have experienced more convenient Internet services through the human-friendly Domain Name System DNS functionality, which maps domain names to internet protocol IP addresses using globally distributed hierarchical name servers.
Internet users with domain addresses can utilize various Internet services, such as web surfing, e-mail, and even mobile services without entering machine-recognized IP addresses. However, DNS was first developed without consideration of cybersecurity and caused many problems [ 1 , 2 ]. There is no doubt that there are many cyber attacks on DNS in the wild. To overcome such various DNS security problems i. Certificates for the public keys are issued by trusted certificate authorities CAs , which certify the ownership of the public keys.
Chung et al. Additionally, several studies have been performed to scrutinize the CA model for lack of transparency and choice of trusted CA sets [ 9 , 10 ]. If one of the CAs acting as a trust anchor is compromised, all information certified by the CA may be falsified. The Dyn cyberattack was a significant event indicating serious DNS risk. Eventually, several major Internet services and banking systems were paralyzed. Figure 1 [ 12 ] shows the map of the Internet disabling in North America by the Dyn cyberattack.
An interesting issue with this attack is that a large part of the US was impacted by attacking Data Centers in only certain parts of the US. That is, the attack directly targeted only a locally distributed DNS with a local Botnet.
This paper is a comprehensive survey of vulnerabilities of DNS and DNSSEC , attacks exploiting those vulnerabilities, and mitigations proposed or deployed to address such attacks. There have been previous surveys on more restricted aspects of DNS security [ 14 ] , a broader security context that includes DNS [ 15 ] , or the use of DNS to combat specific types of attacks [ 16 , 17 ].
The contributions of this paper are: 1 first, the problems of DNS and DNSSEC security are described and classified as fundamental, structural, and systematic vulnerabilities.
Also, the increasing seriousness of DNS attacks is discussed; second, various DNS attacks are discussed and classified by purpose, to understand and analyze them; finally, defenses against DNS attacks are described, and the effectiveness of current DNS attack mitigation is assessed.
The paper is organized as follows. Section 4 explains typical DNS attacks that currently threaten Internet users, assesses these attacks according to seriousness and classifies DNS attacks by purpose. Section 5 explores DNS attack mitigation methods and assesses their strengths and weaknesses. Section 6 concludes with the implications of this study and opportunities for research. In this paper, DNS is defined as the following:.
Service: DNS is a name resolution service. System: DNS is a distributed database system for the naming service as technical support. The DNS servers are located globally. Server Structure : DNS name servers are organized in a top-down tree structure to support an efficient naming service.
In , domain names were first translated to addresses through a local service, managed by the Operating System OS. The host file in the OS stored these translations. Initially, only about 15 organizations used a single network, so keeping these files consistent and updated was straightforward, but not scalable.
However, as the Internet grew the difficulties of keeping the file updated, and the size of the file, became impractical. This resulted in poor search performance and traffic bottlenecks. The DNS system was standardized and widely implemented and started to manage domain names on hierarchically-organized servers, growing into the current DNS system.
Technically, DNS is a hierarchical name server system that uses a globally distributed database system that holds information about each domain. The DNS information is stored in distributed DNS servers, and the information can be searched at any time upon user request. Figure 2 illustrates the hierarchical DNS structure via a common domain name. DNS begins with the. Root domain at the top. Root domain. As the top level of DNS, Root name servers are a global network with 13 redundant servers located in various countries, which manage all TLDs.
The ccTLD stands for the country domain name, such as. Such vertical tree structure enables DNS not only to facilitate the management of each domain information but also to distribute numerous DNS requests efficiently.
Figure 3 illustrates how a client obtains the IP address for a web server via DNS resolution, allowing it to receive web services. Figure 3. DNS architecture. Finally, with the IP address Also, the IP address once found is stored in memory for a certain period. So, it is called Caching Resolver. Each domain server consists of a single master server and several slave servers.
In addition to the basic information regarding IP addresses for domain names, DNS databases provide additional information for a variety of services. The major vulnerability in DNS is the lack of security.
The original DNS protocol did not consider this issue in depth. Thus, DNS data could be forged to translate to a malicious IP address, so that Internet users would connect to a non-authorized site.
This could, for example, be used to distribute false information or to surreptitiously collect personal information. DNS does not provide a way to verify that the received IP address translation is authentic.
A corrupted or intercepted DNS response may provide false information to any requester. Figure 4 shows the basics of data authentication using public-key cryptography. DNSSEC applies the digital signature mechanism to resource records RRs to protect the data itself, which is set in each section of the response message.
These record types support the digital signatures and the signature verification process [ 6 , 19 ]. The DS record is placed in the parent zone along with the delegating NS records for the authentication chain between the parent zone and child zone. However, the verification process is added to the existing DNS. DNS servers verify each other with digital signatures from trusted CAs.
Thus, DNS servers maintain a strong security chain between each other to guarantee the integrity and authentication of DNS data [ 7 ]. Figure 5. Thus, every node on the network subscribing to that multicast address receives the request to resolve a hostname.
The host owning that domain name responds, also using multicast, with its IP address. All nodes subscribing to the multicast address can update their DNS cache with the response. Figure 6 illustrates the basic mDNS protocol. With the advent of IPv6 and the use of numerous embedded devices e. Initially, mDNS was intended to search for printer devices within a network but later expanded to the ability to resolve local hostnames. The major benefits of mDNS are a zero-configuration and no infrastructure.
It is available without conventional DNS settings and does not require a local name server. Also, users can connect and use devices in the network more conveniently because access to devices is intuitive. First, if mDNS is exposed to the Internet, an attacker can easily collect information about devices and services on the network. Multicasting is inherently a powerful means of mounting Denial of Service attacks. Cybersecurity is a defense mechanism to protect the system from various malicious attacks; cyberattacks disable or avoid these defenses.
Vulnerabilities or weaknesses enable such attacks. DNS vulnerabilities can be viewed in 3 ways: by concept, by structure, and by communication. The CIA Triad is a conceptual model of information security, consisting of three factors: confidentiality, integrity, and availability [ 22 ]. The following is an assessment of DNS in terms of information security.
Besides, the information stored by DNS servers is necessarily public, as name to address bindings must be served on demand. DNS servers have a hierarchical tree structure ranging from the Root to a specific domain name server. The structural problems in DNS are as follows:. Users can request an IP address of the desired domain step by step and obtain the response.
Although DNS is designed to be distributed, traffics is concentrated because of the centralization. The centralized DNS structure makes it easier for an attacker to attack multiple Internet services used by many Internet users.
For example, in , a DYN attack exploiting such vulnerability made many users unable to receive normal DNS responses, as well as Internet services unavailable [ 11 ].
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a dedicated memory defense layer that Web-based attacks are one of the top methods of system compromise and they are on the rise. According Web-based threats leverage browsers and their extensions, websites, content 3 tapnetwork2015.orgpdf.
The 21 revised full papers were selected from submissions.
The 21 revised full papers were selected from submissions. They are organized in the following topics: software security, intrusion detection, systems security, android security, cybercrime, cloud security, network security. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.
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