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Modern Construction Lean Project Delivery And Integrated Practices Pdf

modern construction lean project delivery and integrated practices pdf

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In the recent years, owners and construction management companies have shown an increasingly more interest in adopting approaches that result in enhanced quality and less risks, conflicts, and wastes on their projects despite potentially higher initial cost. Implementing advanced technology trends and incorporating more integrated methods of delivering projects have proven to be highly value-adding and forward-thinking approaches.

Integrated practice is a holistic approach to building in which all project stakeholders and participants—architects, engineers, construction managers, contractors, and owners—work together in highly-collaborative relationships throughout the facility life cycle. The objectives of IPD are to increase productivity, reduce waste waste being described as resources spent on activities that does not add value to the end product , avoid time overruns, enhance final produ… Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices in Modern Construction is the new and enhanced edition of the pioneering book Modern Construction by Lincoln H. Forbes and Syed M. She is founding director of the Carbon Leadership Forum, an industry-academic collaborative research effort focused on linking LCA to design and construction practice to advance low carbon construction. For owners, integrated project delivery offers a convenient and efficient single point of responsibility for the entire project.

Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices

In the recent years, owners and construction management companies have shown an increasingly more interest in adopting approaches that result in enhanced quality and less risks, conflicts, and wastes on their projects despite potentially higher initial cost. Implementing advanced technology trends and incorporating more integrated methods of delivering projects have proven to be highly value-adding and forward-thinking approaches.

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of and the synergy between three of such trending concepts in the construction industry, namely, integrated project delivery IPD , lean principles, and building information modeling BIM in terms of cost and schedule performance measures. Data analysis was conducted on 72 vertical projects through interviews and study of the published articles, reports, and case studies.

Qualitative analysis was performed through grounded theory while quantitative analysis was implemented using univariate and multivariate analysis of variance tests on schedule performance and cost performance. Results of the grounded theory analysis summarize six crucial characteristics required for an effective coordination between IPD, lean construction, and BIM. Statistical analysis on different combination of these three components revealed considerable effectiveness in terms of schedule performance while the effect on cost performance was not as much significant.

This study contributes to the body of knowledge and practice in the field of construction by demonstrating the cost and schedule benefits realized through the use of IPD, lean construction, and BIM and identifying their collective conceptual advantages. Construction project cost and schedule are difficult to predict accurately due to complexity of procedures and the presence of various uncertain variables throughout a project.

As a result, forecasting and envisioning project cost and schedule performance measures are complicated even for experienced construction experts and professionals [ 2 ].

As such, many researchers have been trying to find and recommend the factors that can influence project cost and schedule in a positive way. Many such recommendations are proposed to improve project quality, reducing total costs and time to build, and achieving the most desirable value.

Furthermore, regardless of the project delivery method, construction project owners show significantly increased interest in employing technology trends such as building information modeling BIM , sensor-based resources tracking, automation and robotics, and machine learning [ 3 — 5 ]. In addition to the technological advancement, the industry has come to a general agreement on the value of implementing lean principles while benefiting from the advantages of early coordination and communication between project parties [ 6 ].

The latter, has commonly characterized itself via a trending project delivery method, the integrated project delivery IPD. In IPD projects, members meet regularly in early stages of the project initiation where they deliberately discuss relevant issues and practically streamline critical tasks related to the design and construction stages [ 9 ].

Not only do such methodologies guarantee lower number of changes and higher levels of confidence in adhering to the original project budget and duration estimate, they also tend to result in more sustainable and resilient outcomes. The motivating questions of this study are as follows: 1 How can the three components, IPD, BIM, and lean construction be efficiently used in construction projects?

This research study aims to investigate the cooperative relationship and efficiency of different combinations of IPD, lean construction, and BIM in improving the performance of construction projects in the U. Towards this goal, the efficiency of construction projects benefiting from integrated frameworks including different combinations of IPD, lean principles, and BIM ILB in short hereinafter is explored in 72 vertical construction projects and case studies.

Three key phases of a construction project, namely, preconstruction planning, predesign, estimating costs, schematic design, and constructability review , construction managing constructing process, tracking project schedule, and controlling costs , and postconstruction project closeout work and completion are specifically investigated using the proposed evaluation model. A number of recent research studies have discussed the use of IPD, lean construction, and BIM in the US construction industry while there are few projects focusing on investigating the mixed use of all IPD, lean principles, and BIM in terms of project performance metrics, such as cost and schedule performance.

In this section, the definition of each component of the ILB integration as described in the construction literature is provided and then the recent research concentrating on the use of all three components in projects are discussed. According to the American Institute of Architects AIA , IPD is an important concept in the modern construction that brings together people to examine different building systems through various means of business practices in a collaborative environment [ 9 ].

These concepts refer to the equal distribution of risks and rewards of project-involved parties and requiring an early participation of all involved parties [ 7 , 11 ].

In the s, recognized as an outcome of the Toyota Production System TPS , lean manufacturing or lean production was established and executed with significant achievements that led to the original uses of lean thinking in the construction industry [ 13 — 15 ]. Since lean principles were originally appeared as a philosophy, it can be defined in many different ways in accordance with the purpose of the users [ 16 — 18 ].

Lean in construction is described as a method to design a construction system to immensely lessen waste of time, materials, and effort in the interest of maximizing possible project value [ 19 , 20 ]. Lean thinking concentrates on identifying and setting up expected targets and attempts to streamline the master plan. Transforming from lean production, there are three unique concepts of lean principles that construction professionals have identified and evolved: the last planner system, target value design, and lean project delivery system [ 17 , 21 — 23 ].

In addition, a variety of means and techniques related to these three concepts are utilized in the construction industry, such as integrated lean project delivery ILPD , A3 report, lean process design, just-in-time and off-site fabrication, value stream mapping, visual site associated with the 5S principle, daily team cluster, and plan-do-check-adjust procedure [ 24 — 26 ].

Building information models also encompass exchangeable data or files used to assist communication and decision making processes [ 28 ]. With the use of simulation in 4D models, many construction conflicts, design clashes, and constructability issues can be found and resolved in advance [ 30 ].

All such BIM-centric concepts are useful for any kind of project delivery method. BIM software is varied due to the complexity of its usages and types of project [ 27 , 34 ]. There are many studies about the coordination between IPD and BIM or lean construction and BIM but the particular integration of these three elements has not yet been studied.

This is while many construction firms try to combine the functions of each component in order to boost the productivity of their projects [ 38 — 40 ]. In order to successfully integrate IPD, lean construction, and BIM, a collection of their essential conceptions and a detailed analysis of such combination are critical. The current construction literature associated with the integration of IPD, lean construction, and BIM is limited, and existing studies mostly focus on qualitative approaches.

As one of the first qualitative studies related to implementing BIM in conjunction with lean principles and IPD, Miettinen and Paavola [ 41 ] conducted a position literature study outlining developments and enhancements of this cooperation. Rokooei [ 42 ] affirmed that the use of the BIM-based IPD approach supports the project team to keep track and review the project in addition to making important decisions and resolving potential conflicts to enhance the project execution.

Another study showed that BIM utilization enables collaborative lean construction exercises extensively; in fact, BIM users experience leaner procedures by minimizing waste and maximizing value and are more able to deal with potentially complex conflicts and threats to project success [ 43 ].

In a theoretical approach to analyze the collaboration between IPD and BIM, Froese [ 44 ] indicated that these two elements can lead to a comprehensive scheme that establishes meaningful and predictable relationships between the time constraint, processes, and products. The aforementioned studies suggest that past efforts using qualitative analyses supports the mixed use of IPD, lean practices, and BIM in improving project performance.

In terms of quantitative approaches, the existing body of knowledge includes research focusing mostly on case studies about the feasibility of using ILB. Lee et al. Furthermore, many construction professionals and experts believe that BIM application will intensively facilitate lean principles in expanding project performance [ 22 ]. Taking into account the improvement of project performance, IPD and lean construction need to be utilized together with a view to improve reliability between project participants and increase true value for everyone [ 46 ].

Correspondingly, quantitative approaches in the current construction literature reinforce the integration of IPD, lean practices, and BIM in achieving better project performance.

This research paper, first, conducted the grounded theory for the qualitative part in order to demonstrate how ILB integration can be theoretically achieved. Second, a quantitative approach with multiple statistical testing processes aiming at analyzing how ILB integration was actually implemented in vertical construction projects was proposed. Finally, key findings were summarized to support the discussion points.

This study attempts to fill in the current underlying research gaps of incorporating IPD, lean principles, and BIM by utilizing both qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess ILB-based project performance.

Firstly, qualitative research manner was used to gather information and case studies of ILB in the current construction industry which leads to a summary of how to use ILB and its structure. Secondly, quantitative research manner was executed with multiple statistical testing in order to assess proposed hypotheses. Lastly, a detailed discussion was performed. Due to the nature of some projects and according to the nondisclosure agreements NDA between the owner and contractors, several data sources are required to be kept confidential.

The phone interviews took place with participations of numerous construction professionals from 36 general contractor firms in the US. After cleaning the collected data i. The majority of the data pertained to healthcare Table 1 shows descriptive statistics of collected data with 55 IPD-utilized, 70 BIM-employed, and 54 lean-based projects.

Turner Construction, DPR Construction, and Clark Construction were the top three firms that provided the majority of the collected data. To thoroughly understand the extent of using IPD, BIM, and lean practices in the current US construction industry, a commonly used qualitative method, called the grounded theory, was utilized.

Grounded theory is a general methodology to develop theory that is grounded in the data collected systematically about the phenomena of the research [ 47 ]. In this case, the phenomenon of the research is ILB combination in order to theoretically assess ILB-based project performance. Due to the fact that there are many different types, definitions, and practices of IPD, BIM, or lean construction in the industry, it is difficult to classify and recognize typical practices of those three methods.

The objective of the grounded theory used in this study was to identify and group all common practices of ILB in order to provide a comprehensive view of the current use of ILB in the US construction industry. According to grounded theory analysis, collected information is initially coded by identifying and naming essential concepts, indicating main phrases, and transforming data into theoretical components.

Theorized concepts are needed before preparing the first draft for data analysis. Examined theories are incorporated and refined together with generating conceptual models in order to compare analyzed data and write up complete theories [ 47 ]. In this study, qualitative data were collected via phone interviews, emails, and other online materials. Qualitative questions related to definitions, practices, current uses, and benefits of ILB were distributed to collect opinions and subjective judgements of professionals about the use of ILB in vertical construction.

In the quantitative analysis part, this study used the following as the null hypotheses for univariate and multivariate statistical tests: 1 The use of all three components IPD, BIM, and lean practices does not statistically significantly affect the cost performance of building construction projects. In order to analyze the relationships and characteristics of ILB synergies, the descriptive statistics research method that represents the relations of collected variables was applied.

Inference statistics theory, such as analysis of variance ANOVA , generalized linear model GLM , and data transformation techniques like power transform and natural logarithm are used in this analysis. Descriptive statistics are employed to calculate the median, mode, mean, maximum, and minimum values of the standard deviation, kurtosis, and skewness of the collected data. Subsequently, analyzed variables are examined by normality tests to determine if the collected data are normally distributed.

If normal distribution is not observed, methods of data transformation including power transform, the decimal logarithm, linear transformation, natural logarithm, and inverse distribution functions are used. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate accurate, detailed, and certain differences of cost performance and schedule performance of analyzed groups in terms of the mean, median, and mode. About thirty projects are grouped for each model based on their characteristics of delivered by IPD, enhanced lean principles, and utilized BIM techniques.

Multiple ANOVA tests are carried out to assess the proposed hypotheses while the least square regression is performed by the applying generalized linear models GLMs.

The use of GLM is to assure the reliability of quantitative data in the analytical process. Grounded theory in this study is used to demonstrate ILB cooperation and their effects in enhancing project performance.

According to Khan [ 47 ], grounded theory analysis includes four main steps as follows: i Stage 1—codes: determining key data and required aspects in order to obtain facts and specific information. The first step of this research is to conduct an adequate review of the literature and collect key data related to IPD, lean construction, and BIM use in both synergistic and individual perspectives.

In stage 2, fourteen concepts associated with the incorporating use of IPD, lean construction, and BIM were gathered from literature reviews, interviews, and online materials and summarized in Table 3. These concepts are the key practices of ILB in the construction industry which certainly impact on the success of implementation of ILB.

The lean culture and associated techniques provide state-of-the-art principles of typical lean practices in construction. After gathering and organizing all ILB-associated data, the analyzed definitions and perceptions were input into a conceptual model that consists of overlaps and commonalities of IPD, lean principles, and BIM using mind-mapping and pattern-matching techniques. This model includes fourteen particular concepts investigated in the earlier section and is constituted into six prime measures used to explain how to enhance project performance with the fourteen conceptual practices of ILB indicated in Table 3.

Stage 4 of the grounded theory will be verified through a quantitative approach with descriptive statistics and inferential testing of cost and schedule performances in the next section.

The particular descriptive statistics of cost performance and schedule performance used in this paper are means, variance, range, standard deviation, and median. In addition, the normality test was performed as a requirement of assumptions for inference statistics hypothesis testing to confirm whether the data are normally distributed or have some degree of symmetry.

In addition, the Kolmogorov—Smirnov K-S test was used to further verify that the data are not following the normal distribution. The normality Shapiro—Wilk test confirmed that the data pertaining to the two factors are not normally or near-normally distributed.

Therefore, data transformation was required to convert and reconstruct the datasets for further statistical analyses.

A two-step mean transformation method was used for converting the continuous variables to the ones normally distributed. The process begins with fractionally ranking variable cases in order to have a consistency for the transformed variable [ 48 ].

Subsequently, the inverse normal distribution was employed to transform data distribution with the SPSS software.

Princeton University Library Catalog

This book gathers papers presented at the 11th International Conference on Construction in the 21st Century, held in London in Bringing together a diverse group of government agencies, academics, professionals, and students, the book address This book focuses on how to maintain environmental sustainability as one of its main principles, and it addresses how smart cities serve to diminish wastes and maintain natural resources by having clean green energy that is operated by new smart t Du kanske gillar. Spara som favorit. During the past several decades, the manufacturing and service industries significantly increased their levels of productivity, quality, and profitability through the application of process improvement techniques and information technology.

modern construction lean project delivery and integrated practices pdf

Integrated project delivery

Lean construction LC is a method of production aimed at reducing costs, materials, time and effort. Essentially, the methodology is to minimize the bad and maximize the good. Using the principles of lean-construction, the desired outcome would be to maximize the value and output of a project while minimizing wasteful aspects and time delay. This outcome is produced when standard construction approaches are merged with a clear and concise understanding of project materials and information and two sets of management archetypes, planning and control. This may seem complex to understand, but the essence of this system to use what is necessary without extra.

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Modern Construction : Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices

An Introduction to Lean Construction

Integrated project delivery IPD is a construction project delivery method that seeks efficiency and involvement of all participants people, systems, business structures and practices through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction. The objectives of IPD are to increase productivity, reduce waste waste being described as resources spent on activities that does not add value to the end product , avoid time overruns, enhance final product quality, and reduce conflicts between owners, architects and contractors during construction. The construction industry has suffered from a productivity decline since the s [4] [5] while all other non-farm industries have seen large boosts in productivity.

Access to another online project management book added to PM World Library. Forbes and Syed M. Ahmed, published by CRC Press in The construction economy is a large sector of many countries; hence its performance directly influences their competitiveness. The book introduces the subject of lean construction as a methodology for improving the entire design and construction supply chain. It presents other tools and techniques for improving performance as well, and links them with lean construction as support activities, although they can enhance the performance of an individual stakeholder in the supply chain, such as a mechanical subcontractor.

Request PDF | On Apr 1, , Rafael Sacks published Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices | Find, read and.

 - Ах да… Я, кажется, что-то такое читала. - Не очень правдоподобное заявление. - Согласна, - сказала Сьюзан, удивившись, почему вдруг Хейл заговорил об.  - Я в это не верю. Всем известно, что невзламываемый алгоритм - математическая бессмыслица.

 Код? - сердито переспросила. Она посмотрела на панель управления.

 - Попрыгунчик - древняя история. Стратмор дал маху. Но надо идти вперед, а не оглядываться все время.  - В трубке воцарилась тишина, и Джабба подумал, что зашел слишком .

Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices in Modern Construction


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