File Name: transportation research part d transport and environment creator.zip
DOI Introduction: Crowd logistics is a widely accepted concept in times of the growing popularity of sharing economy solutions. The popularity of e-commerce and a tendency to provide same-day delivery are the main reasons for their development.
Transportation Research Part D journal homepage: www. Keywords: This paper deals with assessing some social and environmental effects of transforming a Airport large airport into a real multimodal transport node. The effects include potential savings in the quantities High-Speed Rail and related costs of social and environmental impacts such as airport airside delays, noise, and local and global emissions of greenhouse gases.
Refworks Account Login. Governments at all levels in Canada began to explore policies, plans and targets that can serve to mitigate climate change and thereby reduce its impacts on communities. At the local level, much focus has been directed towards urban form, specifically compact development that concentrates growth in city centres and around transit nodes in order to reduce vehicle travel — a major source of greenhouse gas emissions — and to promote transit use and active transportation.
Local governments have the ability to respond to the challenges posed by climate change through specific planning and development practices. Strategies such as densification and mixed-use development, reduced distances between housing and employment, and improved transit, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure all play a role in reducing GHG emissions.
A critical mass of passengers to support frequent and reliable transit. Shorter distances to travel destinations, which enables walking and cycling as mode choices. A critical mass of customers to support local businesses. Clustered buildings for efficient heating. Local governments have begun to use an array of policy instruments, including provincial legislation, to reduce their GHG emissions.
Communities are setting specific reduction targets, which creates the foundation for more specific policies that address buildings, land use, transportation and energy. The community plans and actions considered within this report incorporate land-use planning principles that strive toward reducing energy consumption and promoting alternative modes of transportation. Some communities are utilizing specific frameworks, such as Smart Growth or the Natural Step, to develop strong, integrated sustainability plans; others are focusing on urban design and other land-use planning measures, such as urban containment boundaries, transit-oriented development, and mixed-use developments.
While there are many challenges facing communities as they attempt to shift to more sustainable planning and development approaches, the research and examples in this report represent viable and effective opportunities for change. Compact, high-density, mixed-use development supported by transportation options will reduce our overall GHG emissions. Communities must therefore work quickly to develop strategies that capitalize on the relationships between GHG emissions and built form in order to reduce our reliance on conventional energy sources, create resilient communities and help reduce the negative impacts of climate change.
The configuration of land use, density, transportation networks and other relationships between buildings, roads, and infrastructure directly influence how much energy and materials we use to live, work, shop, and play.
This report synthesizes research demonstrating the direct link between urban form and levels of energy consumption, with their resultant GHG emissions, and provides a number of examples of community responses to the challenge of reducing GHG emissions. The examples cover a number of Canadian communities, with a focus on B. Municipal and local governments have the ability to considerably reduce GHG emissions through appropriate planning and urban design.
The two main contributors of GHG emissions in urban regions, and significant contributors in rural areas, are vehicle travel and the heating and cooling of buildings.
Both of these sources can be diminished by reinforcing some basic community planning and design principles. For example, travel behaviour is directly related to the distribution of services, amenities and employment opportunities, as well as to transit access: closer destination proximities and greater available travel options therefore result in lower GHG emissions per capita. In addition, such forms of compact development also enable efficiencies in heating buildings: shared walls reduce overall surface areas exposed to the elements, thereby reducing demand for heat, while clustered buildings allow for the provision of district heating.
While some GHGs are produced in nature, climate change is the result of dramatic increases in GHGs produced through human activity. Increased atmospheric CO2 traps heat from solar radiation that would otherwise escape into space. This raises the average global temperature, which in turn can cause sea level rise, ecosystem changes, and increased storm intensity. By far the largest percentage of human-produced CO2 is from the burning of fossil fuels for transportation and electricity.
Figure 1 — The gases that contribute to GHG emissions i There are a number of other gases that contribute to the green house effect including water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide N2O and other industrially produced gases such as hydrofluorocarbons HFCs , perfluorocarbons PFCs and sulfur hexafluoride SF6 The effects of climate change are already being felt around the world, and are especially evident in resource communities. Changes in ecosystems, water, agriculture, fisheries, and forests are affecting everything from employment to human health.
As climate change progresses, the most noticeable effects will be: changes in levels and timing of precipitation; frequency and intensity of storms and droughts; insect infestations; and rising sea levels. Communities will become more vulnerable to natural forces outside of their control, and mitigating the effects of climate change requires urgent global and local strategies to reduce GHG emissions.
Every category of human consumption contributes to GHG emissions, from resource extraction, processing, transportation and manufacturing, to the construction and basic environmental control of buildings.
At the provincial level, B. This policy commitment acknowledges the kinds of institutional, societal and economic changes required in all economic sectors in order to minimize the threats of climate change. Greenhouse Gases Environment Canada publishes an annual national inventory of GHG emissions and monitors changes by sector from year to year. In , total GHG emissions were 4. In , total GHG emissions were 2.
Lifecycle Analysis An important aspect of calculating GHG emissions is determining not only the amount of energy used during the operation of buildings, water and sewage systems, and other components of built form, but also taking into account the entire lifecycle of urban development.
This includes the energy expended in the construction and maintenance of roads, buildings, and urban services. These hidden energy costs are sometimes referred to as embodied energy. A lifecycle calculation of urban infrastructure would include elements such as: mining, logging, and processing of materials; energy used in transportation, assembly and construction of the infrastructure; the lifetime operation and maintenance of the infrastructure; and the ultimate disassembly or removal of the infrastructure to a landfill.
For residential developments, lifecycle costs include calculations for buildings as well as water, sewer, power, and transportation infrastructure. The network of energy and materials is complex, and it is difficult to attribute exact amounts of energy per resident or per household for shared resources such as roads, underground services, and transit systems.
As a result, most methods produce conservative estimates of lifecycle costs. Variations between different ways of calculating lifecycle costs can arise from assumptions about the type of energy used in the manufacturing of specific materials. For example, a steel manufacturing plant that uses coal-generated electricity generates significantly more GHG emissions than a plant operating on hydroelectric power.
Lifecycle-based cost-benefit analyses must include long-term costs and benefits so that long-term savings in energy consumption and emissions are weighed against the short-term costs of construction. Despite these difficulties, lifecycle accounting is an important parallel measurement that should be considered when making land use and infrastructure decisions.
Peak Oil An issue that will have far reaching consequences for our society is the decline of global petroleum supplies as we reach the peak in available global reserves. Energy experts from around the world acknowledge that we are fast approaching the point where oil extraction is at its Figure 2 — Greenhouse gases by source in BC, from LiveSmart B. There will be some upward swings along this path of supply decline, such as increased exploration and extraction from marginal sources as the price increases, and drops in price with economic slowdowns, but the long run trend will be increasing fuel prices and decreasing availability for individual purchasers.
Higher fuel prices will affect most areas of the economy that require electricity, transportation, fertilizers, plastics and synthetic fabrics. Communities can respond to the uncertainty peak oil poses by thinking of the long-term impacts of their current planning and building infrastructure in order to best prepare for the future.
Building Resilient Communities Scientific evidence points to an accelerating pace of climate change that will have dramatic and potentially devastating impacts on the global environment.
However, the inevitability of climate change means that all communities across Canada will be profoundly affected, while the continued increase in human-generated GHG emissions means that the change and the severity of its impacts are accelerating. One of the major influences on how much fossil fuel we consume is the way in which we design and build our communities.
The location and types of buildings, roads, water, and waste systems all interact to influence household and per capita energy consumption.
This report examines these relationships through community examples that help us better understand the relative influence of different aspects of built form on GHG emissions. As the following sections reveal, compact, high-density, mixed-use development generally reduces overall demand on fuel consumption, and builds resiliency in local communities in the face of climate change and peak oil. Recent Legislation in B. This legislation set in motion the first official steps towards addressing climate change in British Columbia.
In , in order to support this commitment, the provincial government enacted two pieces of legislation that would amend the local government and housing statues in British Columbia. This legislation also gives local governments tools to implement strategies for reducing GHG emissions. Increased development permit authority, including flexibility with parking requirements and Development Cost Charges DCCs ii, allows local governments to use a system of incentives and disincentives to guide development towards an overall reduction in emissions.
By doing so, B. As of January , local governments had signed the Charter. BC is supporting municipalities by providing GHG baseline data sets, through the Community Energy and Emissions Inventory Initiative CEEI , and offering a set of technical tools to evaluate the commitment and progress of each community. Governments can also charge developers on a variable scale depending on the anticipated GHG impacts of their proposed developments. The legislation does not require communities to waive DCCs.
Instead, it gives communities the option of waiving these charges to encourage the building of denser, more sustainable and affordable developments: for example, the exemption of DCCs on units smaller than 29m2 is expected to encourage developers to build smaller and therefore more affordable residential units.
Currently there are very few units of this size being built in B. Performance targets such as solar orientation and permeable surface area can be required for a DPA for the purpose of energy and water conservation. It should be noted that DPA legislation does not give local governments power to enact more stringent building code requirements. Parking Requirements Bill 27 also allows communities more flexibility in parking policies and funds.
Local governments may vary or exempt off-street parking requirements for development based on activities or circumstances related to transportation. For example, development located closer to transit or mixed-use developments could have lower parking requirements because transportation options are accessible. Similarly, cash in-lieu provided by developers for off-street parking under this legislation can be placed into a reserve fund for the purposes of providing alternative transportation infrastructure.
For example, local governments can use these funds to build bike paths or invest in public transportation. Under previous legislation parking reserve funds could only be used for alternative off- street parking. Green Buildings Act Bill 10 12 Bill 10 enables local governments to develop bylaws that promote greater energy and water conservation measures, GHG emissions reductions, and improved accessibility for persons with disabilities.
Under this legislation, professional associations will also have the ability to create specialist certifications in areas related to improved building performance, and to determine the levels of training and knowledge required for such certification. The BC government also amended the building code to require more energy efficiency measures in new construction. As Canadian communities move towards reducing GHG emissions, they will find it increasingly important to examine the role that the form and spatial distribution of buildings has on emissions.
A number of interrelated factors contribute to the distribution, functioning, and energy performance of the built areas of our communities. Without higher densities, viable commercial nodes become a challenge; transit is not sufficiently supported to be frequent or reliable; walking and cycling distances are too great to create a feasible alternative to driving; and individual housing units and urban infrastructure are so distributed that they are less energy efficient.
However, higher density alone is not enough to reduce GHG emissions. Density must be coupled with viable transit and a mixture of amenities. One can build a group of townhouses on a farm out beyond the suburbs and few will walk, because there is nothing to walk to. Other factors, such as the mix of land uses, the quality of pedestrian amenities, and the distances to job centres all play an important role in changing travel behaviour and creating opportunities for greater energy efficiency.
The sections that follow summarize key research findings on the importance of each of these elements of urban form. Strategies for increasing residential densities include increasing zoning density caps, establishing minimum densities, reducing minimum lot sizes, offering density transfers and offering density bonuses to developments that meet other desirable walkability and mixed-use targets.
Critical mass of passengers to support frequent and reliable transit 2. Short enough distance to travel destinations to enable walking and cycling as mode choices 3. Critical mass of customers for viable commercial businesses 4. Clustered buildings for efficient heating 5. Clustered buildings for efficient use of municipal service networks water, sewer, power and waste 17Urban Form and GHG Emissions Elements of Built Form auto dependence.
The creation of urban growth boundaries and urban service limits can help contain the spread of sprawl. As Table 2 indicates, higher residential densities make higher frequency public transit more cost effective and reliable, thereby increasing its competitiveness with private vehicles.
Transportation Research Part D- Transport and Environment Volume 16 issue and environmental effects of transforming an tapnetwork2015.org - Free download as PDF.
Matlab codes used to solve examples are indexed and downloadable from the books website. A solutions manual for students is available for sale from the MIT Press a downloadable instructors manual is available to qualified instructors. Student solutions manual to accompany economic dynamics in discrete time Author PDF Creator Subject Download Free student solutions manual to accompany economic dynamics in discrete time Keywords Read Book Online student solutions manual to accompany economic dynamics in discrete time Created Date PM Wang American Economic Review, 5
Improving noise assessment at intersections by modeling traffic dynamics. Chevallier, E. Three families of road noise prediction models can be distinguished. Static noise models only consider free-flow constant-speed traffic with uniformly distributed vehicles. Analytic noise models assume that all vehicles are isolated from one another but account for their mean kinematic profile over the network. Micro-simulation noise models relax the hypothesis of no interaction between vehicles and fully capture traffic flow dynamic effects such as queue evolution. This study compares the noise levels obtained by these three methodologies at signalized intersections and roundabouts.
Refworks Account Login. Governments at all levels in Canada began to explore policies, plans and targets that can serve to mitigate climate change and thereby reduce its impacts on communities. At the local level, much focus has been directed towards urban form, specifically compact development that concentrates growth in city centres and around transit nodes in order to reduce vehicle travel — a major source of greenhouse gas emissions — and to promote transit use and active transportation. Local governments have the ability to respond to the challenges posed by climate change through specific planning and development practices. Strategies such as densification and mixed-use development, reduced distances between housing and employment, and improved transit, bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure all play a role in reducing GHG emissions.
An electric car is a car which is propelled by one or more electric motors , using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. Compared to internal combustion engine ICE vehicles, electric cars are quieter, have no exhaust emissions , and lower emissions overall. Several countries have established government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles , tax credits, subsidies, and other non-monetary incentives. Several countries have established a phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles , and California , which is one of the largest vehicle markets,  has an executive order to ban sales of new gasoline powered vehicles by As of December , the global stock of pure electric passenger cars totaled 4.
The book provides a conceptual framework and work program for actions and outlines future research needs. It presents the current evidence-base, the benefits of and numerous case studies on integrating health and the environment into urban development and transport planning. Within cities there is a considerable variation in the levels of environmental exposures such as ambient air pollution, noise, and temperature, green space availability and physical activity.
Вращающиеся огни напоминали вертолеты, идущие на посадку в густом тумане. Но перед его глазами был только Грег Хейл - молодой криптограф, смотрящий на него умоляющими глазами, и выстрел. Хейл должен был умереть - за страну… и честь. Агентство не может позволить себе еще одного скандала.
Сделайте это, - приказал. - И тут же доложите. ГЛАВА 34 Сьюзан сидела одна в помещении Третьего узла, ожидая возвращения Следопыта.
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